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NBER Working Papers and Publications

May 2012Gender Differences in Bargaining Outcomes: A Field Experiment on Discrimination
with Marco Castillo, Ragan Petrie, Lise Vesterlund: w18093
We examine gender differences in bargaining outcomes in a highly competitive and commonly used market: the taxi market in Lima, Peru. Examining the entire path of negotiation we find that men face higher initial prices and rejection rates. These differentials are consistent with both statistical and taste-based discrimination. To identify the source of the inferior treatment of men we conduct an experiment where passengers send a signal on valuation before negotiating. The signal eliminates gender differences and the response is shown only to be consistent with statistical discrimination. Our study secures identification within the market of interest and demonstrates that there are environments where sophisticated statistical inference is the sole source of differential gender outcomes.

Published: Castillo, Marco & Petrie, Ragan & Torero, Maximo & Vesterlund, Lise, 2013. "Gender differences in bargaining outcomes: A field experiment on discrimination," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 35-48. citation courtesy of

March 2008The Cognitive Link Between Geography and Development: Iodine Deficiency and Schooling Attainment in Tanzania
with Erica M. Field, Omar Robles: w13838
An estimated 20 million children born each year are at risk of brain damage from in utero iodine deficiency, the only micronutrient deficiency known to have significant, non-reversible effects on cognitive development. Cognitive damage from iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) has potentially important implications for economic growth through its effect on human capital attainment. To gauge the magnitude of this influence, we evaluate the impact of reductions in fetal IDD on child schooling attainment that resulted from an intensive distribution of iodized oil capsules (IOC) in Tanzania. We look for evidence of improvements in cognitive ability attributable to the intervention by assessing whether children who benefited from IOC in utero exhibit higher rates of grade progression at ages 10 to...

Published: “Iodine Deficiency and Schooling Attainment in Tanzania” (with Omar Robles and Maximo Torero). American Economic Journal – Applied Economics , October 2009, 1(4):140 - 169

August 2004Labor Market Reforms and Their Impact over Formal Labor Demand and Job Market Turnover. The Case of Peru
with Jaime Saavedra
in Law and Employment: Lessons from Latin America and the Caribbean, James J. Heckman and Carmen Pagés, editors
May 1997Labor Mobility from Academe to Commerce
with Lynne G. Zucker, Michael R. Darby: w6050
Following a breakthrough discovery, scientific knowledge with natural excludability may be best transferred to industry by the labor mobility of top scientists from universities and research institutes to firms. We model labor mobility as a function of scientist's quality (as measured by scientific citations) and his or her reservation wages which is determined by labor quality and the cost of moving, and also depends on the trial frequency, (number of potential firm employers), potential interfering offers from universities, and experienced increase in productivity of top scientists already in firms (reducing reservation values). Applying our model to bioscience and related industries, we find broad support in a group duration analysis. The time a star scientist remains in a university ...

Published: Zucker, Lynne G., Michael R. Darby and Maximo Torero. "Labor Mobility From Academe To Commerce," Journal of Labor Economics, 2002, v20(3,Jul), 629-660. citation courtesy of

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