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NBER Working Papers and Publications
|October 2000||When Do Research Consortia Work Well and Why? Evidence from Japanese Panel Data|
with Lee G. Branstetter: w7972
We examine the impact of a large number of Japanese government-sponsored research consortia on the research productivity of participating firms by measuring their patenting in the targeted technologies before, during, and after participation. Consistent with the theoretical predictions of Katz (1986) and others, we find consortium outcomes are positively associated with the level of potential R&D spillovers within the consortium and (weakly) negatively associated with the degree of product market competition among consortium members. Furthermore, our evidence suggests that consortia are most effective when they focus on basic research.
Published: Branstetter, Lee G. and Mariko Sakakibara. "When Do Research Consortia Work Well and Why? Evidence from Japanese Panel Data." American Economic Review 92, 1 (March 2002): 143-159.
|April 1999||Do Stronger Patents Induce More Innovation? Evidence from the 1988 Japanese Patent Law Reforms|
with Lee Branstetter: w7066
Does an expansion of patent scope induce more innovative effort by firms? This article provides evidence on this question by examining firm responses to the Japanese patent reforms of 1988. Interviews with practitioners suggest the reforms significantly expanded the scope of patent rights in Japan, but that the average response in terms of additional R&D effort and innovative output was quite modest. Interviews also suggest that firm organizational structure is an important determinant of the level of response. Econometric analysis using Japanese and U.S. patent data on 307 Japanese firms confirms that the magnitude of the response is quite small.
Published: Sakakibara, Mariko and Lee Branstetter. "Do Stronger Patents Reduce More Innovation? Evidence From The 1998 Japanese Patent Law Reforms," Rand Journal of Economics, 2001, v32(1,Spring), 77-100.
|June 1997||Japanese Research Consortia: A Microeconometric Analysis of Industrial Policy|
with Lee Branstetter: w6066
The existence of strong spillover' effects of private R&D increases the potential social contribution of R&D but may depress the private incentives to undertake it. R&D consortia offer a potentially effective means of internalizing this externality, and a number of prominent economists have argued for public support of such consortia (e.g., Romer, 1993). Governments in Europe and North America have adopted policies to promote the formation of such consortia, motivated less by economic theory than by the perception that the Japanese government has used such policies to great effect (Tyson, 1992). Despite the existence of a large theoretical literature analyzing the potential benefits and costs of R&D consortia, there has been little corresponding empirical work on their efficacy. In this ...
Published: Journal of Industrial Economics, Vol. 46, no. 2 (June 1998): 207-233.