NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

Junfu Zhang

Department of Economics
Clark University
Worcester, MA 01610
Tel: 508-793-7247
Fax: 508-793-8849

E-Mail: EmailAddress: hidden: you can email any NBER-related person as first underscore last at nber dot org

NBER Working Papers and Publications

February 2008Do Small Businesses Create More Jobs? New Evidence from the National Establishment Time Series
with David Neumark, Brandon Wall: w13818
We use a new database, the National Establishment Time Series (NETS), to revisit the debate about the role of small businesses in job creation. Birch (e.g., 1987) argued that small firms are the most important source of job creation in the U.S. economy, but Davis et al. (1996a) argued that this conclusion was flawed, and based on improved methods and using data for the manufacturing sector they concluded that there was no relationship between establishment size and net job creation. Using the NETS data, we examine evidence for the overall economy, as well as for different sectors. The results indicate that small establishments and small firms create more jobs, on net, although the difference is much smaller than what is suggested by Birch's methods. However, the negative relationship b...

Published: David Neumark & Brandon Wall & Junfu Zhang, 2011. "Do Small Businesses Create More Jobs? New Evidence for the United States from the National Establishment Time Series," Review of Economics and Statistics, vol 93(1), pages 16-29.

November 2005The Effects of Wal-Mart on Local Labor Markets
with David Neumark, Stephen Ciccarella: w11782
We estimate the effects of Wal-Mart stores on county-level retail employment and earnings, accounting for endogeneity of the location and timing of Wal-Mart openings that most likely biases the evidence against finding adverse effects of Wal-Mart stores. We address the endogeneity problem using a natural instrumental variables approach that arises from the geographic and time pattern of the opening of Wal-Mart stores, which slowly spread out from the first stores in Arkansas. The employment results indicate that a Wal-Mart store opening reduces county-level retail employment by about 150 workers, implying that each Wal-Mart worker replaces approximately 1.4 retail workers. This represents a 2.7 percent reduction in average retail employment. The payroll results indicate that Wal-Mart s...

Published: Journal of Urban Economics. Volume 67, Issue 1 (2010), pages 1-168 citation courtesy of

October 2005Employment Dynamics and Business Relocation: New Evidence from the National Establishment Time Series
with David Neumark, Brandon Wall: w11647
We analyze and assess new evidence on employment dynamics from a new data source %uF818 the National Establishment Time Series (NETS). The NETS offers advantages over existing data sources for studying employment dynamics, including tracking business establishment relocations that can contribute to job creation or destruction on a regional level. Our primary purpose in this paper is to assess the reliability of the NETS data along a number of dimensions, and we conclude that it is a reliable data source although not without limitations. We also illustrate the usefulness of the NETS data by reporting, for California, a full decomposition of employment change into its six constituent processes, including job creation and destruction stemming from business relocation, which has figured promi...

Published: Neumark, David, Junfu Zhang, and Brandon Wall. “Employment Dynamics and Business Relocation: New Evidence from the National Establishment Time Series.” Research in Labor Economics (2007): 39-83.

 
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