John W R. Phillips
National Institute on Aging/NIH
Division of Behavioral and Social Research
7201 Wisconsin Avenue
Bethesda, MD 20817
NBER Working Papers and Publications
|October 2000||Retirement Responses to Early Social Security Benefit Reductions|
with Olivia S. Mitchell: w7963
This paper evaluates potential responses to reductions in early Social Security retirement benefits. Using the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) linked to administrative records, we find that Social Security coverage is quite uneven in the older population: one-quarter of respondents in their late 50's lacks coverage under the Disability Insurance program, and one-fifth lacks coverage for old-age benefits. Among those eligible for benefits, respondents who subsequently retired early appear quite similar initially to those who later filed for normal retirement benefits, but both groups were healthier and better educated than those who later filed for disability benefits. Next we investigate the potential impact of curtailing, and then eliminating, early Social Security benefits. A life-...
|September 1999||Estate Taxes, Life Insurance, and Small Business|
with Douglas Holtz-Eakin, Harvey S. Rosen: w7360
One criticism of the estate tax is that it prevents the owners of family businesses from passing their enterprises to their children. The problem is that it may be difficult to pay estate taxes without liquidating the business. A natural question is why individuals with such concerns do not purchase enough life insurance to meet their estate tax liabilities. This paper examines whether and how people use life insurance to deal with the estate tax. We find that, other things being the same, business owners purchase more life insurance than other individuals. However, on the margin, their insurance purchases are less responsive to estate tax considerations and they are less likely to have the wherewithal to meet estate tax liabilities out of liquid assets plus insurance.
Published: Holtz-Eakin, Douglas, John W. R. Phillips and Harvey S. Rosen. "Estate Taxes, Life Insurance, And Small Business," Review of Economics and Statistics, 2001, v83(1,Feb), 52-63. citation courtesy of
|July 1999||Worklife Determinants of Retirement Income Differentials Between Men and Women|
with Phillip J. Levine, Olivia S. Mitchell: w7243
Women enter retirement having spent fewer years in market work, earned less over their lifetimes, and worked in different jobs than men of the same age. This study examines whether these differences in work-life experiences help explain why many women end up with lower levels of retirement income in old age. We use the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which provides information on labor market histories along with the ability to predict retirement income from employer pensions, social security benefits, and investment returns. We document differences in anticipated retirement income by sex that exist largely between nonmarried men and women. Multivariate models show that 85 percent of this retirement income gap can be attributed to differences in lifetime labor market earnings, years wo...
Published: Published as "The Benefit of Additional High-School Math and Science Classes for Young Men and Women", JBES, Vol. 13, no. 2 (1995): 137-149.