NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

Jeff Armstrong

University of California, Los Angeles

NBER Working Papers and Publications

October 2001Commercializing Knowledge: University Science, Knowledge Capture, and Firm Performance in Biotechnology
with Lynne G. Zucker, Michael R. Darby: w8499
Commercializing knowledge involves transfer from discovering scientists to those who will develop it commercially. New codes and formulae describing discoveries develop slowly - with little incentive if value is low and many competing opportunities if high. Hence new knowledge remains naturally excludable and appropriable. Team production allows more knowledge capture of tacit, complex discoveries by firm scientists. A robust indicator of a firm's tacit knowledge capture (and strong predictor of its success) is the number of research articles written jointly by firm scientists and discovering, 'star' scientists, nearly all working at top universities. An operationally attractive generalization of our star measure - collaborative research articles between firm scientists and top resear...

Published:

December 1994Intellectual Capital and the Firm: The Technology of Geographically Localized Knowledge Spillovers
with Lynne G. Zucker, Michael R. Darby: w4946
We examine the effects of university-based star scientists on three measures of performance for California biotechnology enterprises: the number of products in development, the number of products on the market, and changes in employment. The `star' concept which Zucker, Darby, and Brewer (1994) demonstrated was important for birth of U.S. biotechnology enterprises also predicts geographically localized knowledge spillovers at least for products in development. However, when we break down university stars into those who have collaborated on publications with scientists affiliated with the firm and all other university stars, there is a strong positive effect of the linked stars on all three firm-performance measures and little or no evidence of an effect from the other university stars. We...

Published: Economic Inquiry. Vol 36, January 1998. pp. 65-86

 
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