Hai Fang

Department of Health Systems,
Management and Policy
University of Colorado Denver
13001 E 17th Place, Campus Box B119
Aurora, CO 80045
Tel: (303)724-4777
Fax: (303)724-4495

E-Mail: EmailAddress: hidden: you can email any NBER-related person as first underscore last at nber dot org

NBER Working Papers and Publications

June 2012The Returns to Education in China: Evidence from the 1986 Compulsory Education Law
with Karen N. Eggleston, John A. Rizzo, Scott Rozelle, Richard J. Zeckhauser: w18189
As China transforms from a socialist planned economy to a market-oriented economy, its returns to education are expected to rise to meet those found in middle-income established market economies. This study employs a plausible instrument for education: the China Compulsory Education Law of 1986. We use differences among provinces in the dates of effective implementation of the compulsory education law to show that the law raised overall educational attainment in China by about 0.8 years of schooling. We then use this instrumental variable to control for the endogeneity of education and estimate the returns to an additional year of schooling in 1997-2006. Results imply that the overall returns to education are approximately 20 percent per year on average in contemporary China, fairly consis...
April 2010Jobs and Kids: Female Employment and Fertility in Rural China
with Karen N. Eggleston, John A. Rizzo, Richard J. Zeckhauser: w15886
Data on 2,355 married women from the 2006 China Health and Nutrition Survey are used to study how female employment affects fertility in China. China has deep concerns with both population size and female employment, so the relationship between the two should be better understood. Causality flows in both directions. A conceptual model shows how employment prospects affect fertility. Then a well-validated instrumental variable isolates this effect. Female employment reduces a married woman's preferred number of children by 0.35 on average and her actual number by 0.50. Ramifications for China's one-child policy are discussed.

Published: Hai Fang & Karen N Eggleston & John A Rizzo & Richard J Zeckhauser, 2013. "Jobs and kids: female employment and fertility in China," IZA Journal of Labor & Development, vol 2(1).

September 2008Demanding Customers: Consumerist Patients and Quality of Care
with Nolan H. Miller, John A. Rizzo, Richard J. Zeckhauser: w14350
Consumerism arises when patients acquire and use medical information from sources apart from their physicians, such as the Internet and direct-to-patient advertising. Consumerism has been hailed as a means of improving quality. This need not be the result. Consumerist patients place additional demands on their doctors' time, thus imposing a negative externality on other patients. Our theoretical model has the physician treat both consumerist and ordinary patient under a binding time budget. Relative to a world in which consumerism does not exist, consumerism is never Pareto improving, and in some cases harms both consumerist and ordinary patients. Data from a large national survey of physicians shows that high levels of consumerism are associated with lower perceived quality. Three...

Published: Hai Fang & Nolan H. Miller & John Rizzo & Richard Zeckhauser, 2011. "Demanding Customers: Consumerist Patients and Quality of Care," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, Berkeley Electronic Press, vol. 11(1), pages 59. citation courtesy of

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