Elena Pastorino

Department of Economics
University of Minnesota
4-101 Hanson Hall
1925 Fourth Street South
Minneapolis, MN 55455

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NBER Working Papers and Publications

March 2017Financial Markets and Fiscal Unions
with Patrick J. Kehoe: w23235
Do sophisticated international financial markets obviate the need for an active union-wide authority to orchestrate fiscal transfers between countries to provide adequate insurance against country-specific economic fluctuations? We argue that they do. Specifically, we show that in a benchmark economy with no international financial markets, an activist union-wide authority is necessary to achieve desirable outcomes. With sophisticated financial markets, however, such an authority is unnecessary if its only goal is to provide cross-country insurance. Since restricting the set of policy instruments available to member countries does not create a fiscal externality across them, this result holds in a wide variety of settings. Finally, we establish that an activist union-wide authority concern...
September 2016Debt Constraints and Employment
with Patrick Kehoe, Virgiliu Midrigan: w22614
During the Great Recession, regions of the United States that experienced the largest declines in household debt also experienced the largest drops in consumption, employment, and wages. Employment declines were larger in the nontradable sector and for firms that were facing the worst credit conditions. Motivated by these findings, we develop a search and matching model with credit frictions that affect both consumers and firms. In the model, tighter debt constraints raise the cost of investing in new job vacancies and thus reduce worker job finding rates and employment. Two key features of our model, on-the-job human capital accumulation and consumer-side credit frictions, are critical to generating sizable drops in employment. On-the-job human capital accumulation makes the flows of bene...
November 2015Nonlinear Pricing in Village Economies
with Orazio Attanasio: w21718
We propose a model of price discrimination to account for the nonlinearity of unit prices of basic food items in developing countries. We allow consumers to differ in their marginal willingness and absolute ability to pay for a good, incorporate consumers’ subsistence constraints, and model consumers’ outside options from purchasing a good, such as self-production or access to other markets, which depend on consumers’ preferences and income. We obtain a simple characterization of equilibrium non-linear pricing and show that nonlinear pricing leads to higher levels of consumption and lower marginal prices than those implied by the standard nonlinear pricing model. The model is nonparametrically and semiparametrically identified under common assumptions. We derive nonparametric and ...
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