Department of Health Research and Policy
HRP Redwood Building
Stanford, California 94305-5405
NBER Working Papers and Publications
|March 2012||Geographic and Racial Variation in Premature Mortality in the US: Analyzing the Disparities|
with Mark R. Cullen, Victor R. Fuchs: w17901
Life expectancy at birth, estimated from United States period life tables, has been shown to vary systematically and widely by region and race. We use the same tables to estimate the probability of survival from birth to age 70 (S70), a measure of mortality more sensitive to disparities and more reliably calculated for small populations, to describe the variation and identify its sources in greater detail to assess the patterns of this variation. Examination of the unadjusted probability of S70 for each US county with a sufficient population of whites and blacks reveals large geographic differences for each race-sex group. For example, white males born in the ten percent healthiest counties have a 77 percent probability of survival to age 70, but only a 61 percent chance if born in the ...
Published: Geographic and Racial Variation in Premature Mortality in the U.S.: Analyzing the Disparities Mark R. Cullen, Clint Cummins, Victor R. Fuchs Research Article | published 17 Apr 2012 | PLOS ONE 10.1371/journal.pone.0032930
|1984||Who Does R&D and Who Patents?|
with John Bound, Zvi Griliches, Bronwyn H. Hall, Adam B. Jaffe
in R&D, Patents, and Productivity, Zvi Griliches, editor
|June 1982||Who Does R&D and Who Patents?|
with John Bound, Zvi Griliches, Bronwyn H. Hall, Adam B. Jaffe: w0908
This paper describes the construction of a large panel data set covering about 2600 firms in the U.S. manufacturing sector for up to twenty years which contains annual data on financial variables, employment, research and development expenditures, and aggregate patent applications. This data set is to be used in a larger study of R&D, inventive output and technological change. In the present paper we present preliminary results on the R&D and patenting behavior of the 1976 cross section of these firms. We find an elasticity of R&D with respect to sales of close to unity, with both very small and very large firms being slightly more R&D intensive than average. Because only 60% of the firms report R&D expenditures, we attempt to correct for selectivity bias and find that though the correctio...
Published: Bound, J. et al. "Who Does R&D and Who Patents?" R&D, Patents and Productivity, edited by Zvi Griliches. Chicago: Univeristy of Chicago Press, (1984).pp. 21-54.