Department of Finance, Canada
90 Elgin Street
Ottawa, ON K1P 0C6
NBER Working Papers and Publications
|October 2014||Do Tax Credits Affect R&D Expenditures by Small Firms? Evidence from Canada|
with Ajay Agrawal, Timothy S. Simcoe: w20615
We exploit a change in eligibility rules for the Canadian Scientific Research and Experimental Development (SRED) tax credit to gain insight on how tax credits impact small-firm R&D expenditures. After a 2004 program change, privately owned firms that became eligible for a 35 percent tax credit (up from a 20 percent rate) on a greater amount of qualifying R&D expenditures increased their R&D spending by an average of 15 percent. Using policy-induced variation in tax rates and R&D tax credits, we estimate the after-tax cost elasticity of R&D to be roughly -1.5. We also show that the response to changes in the after-tax cost of R&D is larger for contract R&D expenditures than for the R&D wage bill and is larger for firms that (a) perform contract R&D services or (b) recently made R&D-related...
|January 2010||Not Invented Here? Innovation in Company Towns|
with Ajay Agrawal, Iain Cockburn
in Cities and Entrepreneurship, Edward L. Glaeser, Stuart S. Rosenthal and William C. Strange, organizers
|October 2009||Not Invented Here? Innovation in Company Towns|
with Ajay K. Agrawal, Iain M. Cockburn: w15437
We examine variation in the concentration of inventive activity across 72 of North America's most highly innovative locations. In 12 of these areas, innovation is particularly concentrated in a single, large firm; we refer to such locations as "company towns.'' We find that inventors employed by large firms in these locations tend to draw disproportionately from their firm's own prior inventions (as measured by citations to their own prior patents) relative to what would be expected given the underlying distribution of innovative activity across all inventing firms in a particular technology field. Furthermore, we find such inventors are more likely to build upon the same prior inventions year after year. However, smaller firms in company towns do not exhibit this myopic behavior; they dr...
- Agrawal, Ajay & Cockburn, Iain & Rosell, Carlos, 2010.
"Not Invented Here? Innovation in company towns,"
Journal of Urban Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 78-89, January.
citation courtesy of
- Ajay Agrawal & Iain Cockburn & Carlos Rosell, 2010.
"Not Invented Here? Innovation in Company Towns,"
in: Cities and Entrepreneurship
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
|October 2006||University Patenting: Estimating the Diminishing Breadth of Knowledge Diffusion and Consumption|
with Ajay Agrawal: w12640
The rate of university patenting increased dramatically during the 1980s. To what extent did the knowledge flow patterns associated with public sector inventions change as university administrators and faculty seemingly became more commercially oriented? Using a Herfindahl-type measure of patent assignee concentration and employing a difference-in-differences estimation to compare university to firm patents across two time periods, we find that the university diffusion premium (the degree to which knowledge flows from patented university inventions are more widely distributed across assignees than those of firms) declined by over half during the 1980s. In addition, we find that the university diversity premium (the degree to which knowledge inflows used to develop patented university inven...