Branko Milanovic

World Bank
1818 H. Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433

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NBER Working Papers and Publications

October 2007Measuring Ancient Inequality
with Peter H. Lindert, Jeffrey G. Williamson: w13550
Is inequality largely the result of the Industrial Revolution? Or, were pre-industrial incomes and life expectancies as unequal as they are today? For want of sufficient data, these questions have not yet been answered. This paper infers inequality for 14 ancient, pre-industrial societies using what are known as social tables, stretching from the Roman Empire 14 AD, to Byzantium in 1000, to England in 1688, to Nueva EspaƱa around 1790, to China in 1880 and to British India in 1947. It applies two new concepts in making those assessments -- what we call the inequality possibility frontier and the inequality extraction ratio. Rather than simply offering measures of actual inequality, we compare the latter with the maximum feasible inequality (or surplus) that could have been extracted by th...
March 2007Does Tariff Liberalization Increase Wage Inequality? Some Empirical Evidence
with Lyn Squire
in Globalization and Poverty, Ann Harrison, editor
January 2005Does Tariff Liberalization Increase Wage Inequality? Some Empirical Evidence
with Lyn Squire: w11046
The objective of the paper is to answer an often-asked question : if tariff rates are reduced, what will happen to wage inequality ? We consider two types of wage inequality : between occupations (skills premium), and between industries. We use two large data bases of wage inequality that have become recently available and a large dataset of average tariff rates all covering the period between 1980 and 2000. We find that tariff reduction is associated with higher inter-occupational and inter-industry inequality in poorer countries (those below the world median income) and the reverse in richer countries. The results for inter-occupational inequality though must be treated with caution.

Published: Does Tariff Liberalization Increase Wage Inequality? Some Empirical Evidence, Branko Milanovic, Lyn Squire. in Globalization and Poverty, Harrison. 2007

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