NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

Azam Chaudhry

Department of Economics
Lahore School of Economics

E-Mail: azam@lahoreschool.edu.pk

NBER Working Papers and Publications

July 2015Organizational Barriers to Technology Adoption: Evidence from Soccer-Ball Producers in Pakistan
with David Atkin, Shamyla Chaudry, Amit K. Khandelwal, Eric Verhoogen: w21417
This paper studies technology adoption in a cluster of soccer-ball producers in Sialkot, Pakistan. We invented a new cutting technology that reduces waste of the primary raw material and gave the technology to a random subset of producers. Despite the clear net benefits for nearly all firms, after 15 months take-up remained puzzlingly low. We hypothesize that an important reason for the lack of adoption is a misalignment of incentives within firms: the key employees (cutters and printers) are typically paid piece rates, with no incentive to reduce waste, and the new technology slows them down, at least initially. Fearing reductions in their effective wage, employees resist adoption in various ways, including by misinforming owners about the value of the technology. To investigate this hypo...

Published: David Atkin & Azam Chaudhry & Shamyla Chaudry & Amit K. Khandelwal & Eric Verhoogen, 2017. "Organizational Barriers to Technology Adoption: Evidence from Soccer-Ball Producers in Pakistan," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 132(3), pages 1101-1164. citation courtesy of

January 2015Mark-up and Cost Dispersion across Firms: Direct Evidence from Producer Surveys in Pakistan
with David Atkin, Shamyla Chaudry, Amit K. Khandelwal, Eric Verhoogen: w20868
Researchers typically invoke theoretical assumptions to estimate mark-ups. Instead, we directly obtain mark-ups by surveying Pakistani soccer-ball producers. We document six facts: (1) Mark-ups are more dispersed than costs; (2) Mark-ups and costs increase with firm size; (3) The mark-up elasticity with respect to size exceeds the cost elasticity; (4) Costs increase with size because larger firms use higher-quality inputs; (5) Larger firms charge higher mark-ups because they have higher production shares of high-quality balls that carry higher mark-ups, and because they charge higher mark-ups conditional on ball type; (6) Correlations suggest marketing efforts are important for generating higher mark-ups.

Published: David Atkin & Azam Chaudhry & Shamyla Chaudhry & Amit K. Khandelwal & Eric Verhoogen, 2015. "Markup and Cost Dispersion across Firms: Direct Evidence from Producer Surveys in Pakistan," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 105(5), pages 537-44, May. citation courtesy of

 
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