Andres Santos

Department of Economics
University of California - Los Angeles
8283 Bunche Hall, 315 Portola Plaza
Los Angeles, CA, 90095

E-Mail: EmailAddress: hidden: you can email any NBER-related person as first underscore last at nber dot org
Institutional Affiliation: University of California at Los Angeles

NBER Working Papers and Publications

July 2017Using Instrumental Variables for Inference about Policy Relevant Treatment Effects
with Magne Mogstad, Alexander Torgovitsky: w23568
We propose a method for using instrumental variables (IV) to draw inference about causal effects for individuals other than those affected by the instrument at hand. Policy relevance and external validity turns on the ability to do this reliably. Our method exploits the insight that both the IV estimand and many treatment parameters can be expressed as weighted averages of the same underlying marginal treatment effects. Since the weights are known or identified, knowledge of the IV estimand generally places some restrictions on the unknown marginal treatment effects, and hence on the values of the treatment parameters of interest. We show how to extract information about the average effect of interest from the IV estimand, and, more generally, from a class of IV-like estimands that include...
February 2011Higher Order Properties of the Wild Bootstrap Under Misspecification
with Patrick M. Kline: w16793
We examine the higher order properties of the wild bootstrap (Wu, 1986) in a linear regression model with stochastic regressors. We find that the ability of the wild bootstrap to provide a higher order refinement is contingent upon whether the errors are mean independent of the regressors or merely uncorrelated. In the latter case, the wild bootstrap may fail to match some of the terms in an Edgeworth expansion of the full sample test statistic, potentially leading to only a partial refinement (Liu and Singh, 1987). To assess the practical implications of this result, we conduct a Monte Carlo study contrasting the performance of the wild bootstrap with the traditional nonparametric bootstrap.

Published: Kline, Patrick & Santos, Andres, 2012. "Higher order properties of the wild bootstrap under misspecification," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 171(1), pages 54-70. citation courtesy of

June 2010A Score Based Approach to Wild Bootstrap Inference
with Patrick M. Kline: w16127
We propose a generalization of the wild bootstrap of Wu (1986) and Liu (1988) based upon perturbing the scores of M-estimators. This "score bootstrap" procedure avoids recomputing the estimator in each bootstrap iteration, making it substantially less costly to compute than the conventional nonparametric bootstrap, particularly in complex nonlinear models. Despite this computational advantage, in the linear model, the score bootstrap studentized test statistic is equivalent to that of the conventional wild bootstrap up to order `O_p(n^(-1))`. We establish the consistency of the procedure for Wald and Lagrange Multiplier type tests and tests of moment restr...

Published: Kline Patrick & Santos Andres, 2012. "A Score Based Approach to Wild Bootstrap Inference," Journal of Econometric Methods, De Gruyter, vol. 1(1), pages 23-41, August. citation courtesy of

February 2010Sensitivity to Missing Data Assumptions: Theory and An Evaluation of the U.S. Wage Structure
with Patrick Kline: w15716
This paper develops methods for assessing the sensitivity of empirical conclusions regarding conditional distributions to departures from the missing at random (MAR) assumption. We index the degree of non-ignorable selection governing the missingness process by the maximal Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) distance between the distributions of missing and observed outcomes across all values of the covariates. Sharp bounds on minimum mean square approximations to conditional quantiles are derived as a function of the nominal level of selection considered in the sensitivity analysis and a weighted bootstrap procedure is developed for conducting inference. Using these techniques, we conduct an empirical assessment of the sensitivity of observed earnings patterns in U.S. Census data to deviations from t...

Published: Patrick Kline & Andres Santos, 2013. "Sensitivity to missing data assumptions: Theory and an evaluation of the U.S. wage structure," Quantitative Economics, Econometric Society, vol. 4(2), pages 231-267, 07. citation courtesy of

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