NBER Working Papers and Publications
|June 2003||International Migration, Remittances, and Schooling: Evidence from El Salvador|
with Manuelita Ureta: w9766
We examine the effect of remittances from abroad on households' schooling decisions using data for El Salvador. Following the massive war-related emigration of the 1980's, remittances became a significant source of household income throughout the 1990's. We use the Cox proportional hazard model to examine the determinants of school attendance. Measuring income from a source that is uncorrelated with parental schooling remittances , we find that remittances have a large, significant effect on school retention. We estimate that while household income net of remittances has a small, though significant, impact on the hazard of leaving school in rural and urban areas, remittances have a much larger impact on the hazard of leaving school. In urban areas, the effect of remittances is, at its...
Published: Edwards, Alejandra Cos and Manuelita Ureta. "International Migration, Remittances, And Schooling: Evidence From El Salvador," Journal of Development Economics, 2003, v72(2,Dec), 429-461.
|May 2002||Social Security Privatization Reform and Labor Markets: The Case of Chile|
with Sebastian Edwards: w8924
We analyze the way in which social security privatization reform affects labor market outcomes. We develop a model of the labor market where we assume that, as is the case in most emerging markets, a formal and an informal sectors coexist side by side. According to our model, a social security reform that reduces the implicit tax on labor in the formal sector, will result in an increase in the wage rate in the informal sector and will have an undetermined effect on aggregate unemployment. Results from simulation exercises suggest that in the case of Chile the reforms resulted in an increase in informal sector wages of approximately 2.0%. These results also suggest that the reforms made a positive, but small, contribution to the reduction of Chile's aggregate of unemployment.
Published: Edwards, Sebastian and Alejandra Cox Edwards. "Social Security Privatization Reform And Labor Market: The Case Of Chile," Economic Development and Cultural Change, 2002, v50(3,Apr), 465-489.
|April 2000||Economic Reforms and Labor Markets: Policy Issues and Lessons from Chile|
with Sebastian Edwards: w7646
This paper deals with the reform to labor market regulation implemented by Chile during the last twenty years. We concentrate on the reform to job security, on the decentralization of the wage bargaining process, and on the reduction in payroll taxes. Our interest is to understand to what extent these reforms helped reduce Chile's rate of unemployment from European' to U.S' levels. We argue that the reduction of payroll taxes (within the context of the social security reform), and the decentralization of bargaining increased labor market flexibility and contributed to the reduction of unemployment. Our analysis suggests that the reform on job security had no significant effect on the aggregate rate of unemployment.
Published: Edwards, Sebastian and Alejandra Cox Edwards. "Economic Reforms And Labour Markets: Policy Issues And Lessons From Chile," Economic Policy, 2000, v15(30,Apr), 181-230. citation courtesy of
|May 1990||Labor Market Distortions and Structural Adjustments in Developing Countries|
with Sebastian Edwards: w3346
The purpose of this paper is to provide a typology of different labor market configurations and investigate how two major structural adjustment policies, namely a trade liberalization reform and the relaxation of capital controls, affect the level of aggregate employment and the rate of unemployment. We consider a number of models starting from the traditional Australian approach. We then analyze a multiple sectors intertemporal setting and a model with uncertainty and search. We identify situations under which structural adjustment results in unemployment.