NBER Working Papers and Publications
|April 1996||U.S. Trade Policy and Cigarette Smoking in Asia|
with Frank J. Chaloupka: w5543
During the 1980's and early 1990's, the cigarette markets in Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, and Thailand were opened to U.S. cigarettes through actions taken under Section 301 of the 1974 Trade Act and its subsequent amendments. Using pooled annual time-series data from ten Asian countries, the impact of the Section 301 agreements on the market share of U.S. cigarettes and on per capita cigarette consumption is examined. Estimates from fixed effects models indicate that the market share of U.S. cigarettes in Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, and Thailand increased dramatically after the agreements as consumers switched from the brands produced by domestic monopolies to the brands of U.S. cigarette producers. In addition, simulations based on the regression results indicate that per capita cigare...
|February 1994||Do Youths Substitute Alcohol and Marijuana? Some Econometric Evidence|
with Frank J. Chaloupka: w4662
Data from the 1982 and 1989 Monitoring the Future Surveys are used to examine the substitutability of alcoholic beverages and marijuana among youths. Beer prices and minimum legal drinking ages are used as measures of the full price of alcohol, while an indicator of marijuana decriminalization and its money price capture the full price of marijuana. Results indicate that drinking frequency and heavy drinking episodes are negatively related to beer prices, but positively related to the full price of marijuana. The implications of this substitution for one of the consequences of youth substance abuse, driving while intoxicated, is examined using information on youth non-fatal accidents taken from the surveys and on youth fatal motor vehicle accidents constructed from the Fatal Accident Re...
Published: Chaloupka, Frank J. and Adit Laixuthai. "Do Youths Substitute Alcohol And Marijuana? Some Econometric Evidence," Eastern Economic Journal, 1997, v23(3,Summer), 253-276. citation courtesy of
|June 1993||Effects of Alcohol Price Policy on Youth|
with Michael Grossman, Frank J. Chaloupka, Henry Saffer: w4385
In this paper we summarize research that deals with the effects of alcoholic beverage prices and excise taxes on a variety of outcomes for youth. These include alcohol consumption, excessive consumption, motor vehicle accident mortality, and college completion rates. The research employs six nationally representative data sets on individuals that span the period from 1974 through 1989 and two state level data sets for the years 1975-1981 and 19821988. The studies find that alcohol use and motor vehicle accident mortality are negatively related to the cost of alcohol. College completion rates are positively related to this variable. Clearly, these are policy-relevant findings since price is a policy-manipulable variable. Frequently, the effects of a variety of simulated excise tax hikes exc...
Published: Journal of Research on Adolescence, 4(2), pp. 347-364, (1994).
|February 1993||Youth Alcohol Use and Public Policy|
with Frank J. Chaloupka: w4278
This paper examines the frequency of youth drinking and heavy drinking in 1982 and 1989. The effects of minimum legal drinking ages and beer excise taxes are considered separately for each year. In both years, drinking is found to be responsive to changes in prices resulting from higher excise taxes. However, the price sensitivity of youth alcohol use fell after the change to a uniform legal drinking age of 21.
Published: Contemporary Economic Policy, Vol. 11, No. 4, (October 1993), pp. 70-81 citation courtesy of