Krishna Kumar

RAND Corporation

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NBER Working Papers and Publications

July 2009Federal Life Sciences Funding and University R&D
with Margaret E. Blume-Kohout, Neeraj Sood: w15146
This paper investigates the impact of federal extramural research funding on total expenditures for life sciences research and development (R&D) at U.S. universities, to determine whether federal R&D funding spurs funding from non-federal (private and state/local government) sources. We use a fixed effects instrumental variable approach to estimate the causal effect of federal funding on non-federal funding. Our results indicate that a dollar increase in federal funding leads to a $0.33 increase in non-federal funding at U.S. universities. Our evidence also suggests that successful applications for federal funding may be interpreted by non-federal funders as a signal of recipient quality: for example, non-PhD-granting universities, lower ranked universities and those that have histori...
September 2003US-Europe Differences in Technology-Driven Growth: Quantifying the Role of Education
with Dirk Krueger: w10001
European economic growth has been weak, compared to the US, since the 80s. In previous work (Krueger and Kumar, 2003), we argued that the European focus on specialized, vocational education might have been effective during the 60s and 70s, but resulted in a growth gap relative to the US during the subsequent information age, when new technologies emerged more rapidly. In this paper, we extend our framework to assess the quantitative importance of education policy, when compared to labor market rigidity and product market regulation, other policy differences more commonly suggested to be responsible for US-Europe differences. A assigns a major role to education policy in explaining US-Europe growth differences.

Published: Krueger, Dirk and Krishna B. Kumar. "US-Europe Differences in Technology-Driven Growth: Quantifying the Role of Education." Journal of Monetary Economics 51(1): 161-190, January 2004 citation courtesy of

January 2003Skill-specific rather then General Education: A Reason for US-Europe Growth Differences?
with Dirk Krueger: w9408
In this paper, we develop a model of technology adoption and economic growth in which households optimally obtain either a concept-based, general' education or a skill-specific, vocational' education. General education is more costly to obtain, but enables workers to operate new technologies incorporated into production. Firms weigh the cost of adopting and operating new technologies against increased revenues and optimally choose the level of adoption. We show that an economy whose policies favor vocational education will grow slower in equilibrium than one that favors general education. Moreover, the gap between their growth rates will increase with the growth rate of available technology. By characterizing the optimal Ramsey education subsidy policy we demonstrate that the optimal subs...

Published: Krueger, Dirk and Krishna B. Kumar. "Skill-Specific Rather Than General Education: A Reason For US-Europe Growth Differences?" Journal of Economic Growth 9(2): 167-207, June 2004 citation courtesy of

July 1999What Determines Firm Size?
with Raghuram G. Rajan, Luigi Zingales: w7208
Motivated by theories of the firm, which we classify as technological' or organizational,' we analyze the determinants of firm size across industries and across countries in a sample of 15 European countries. We find that, on average, firms facing larger markets are larger. At the industry level, we find firms in the utility sector are large, perhaps because they enjoy a natural, or officially sanctioned, monopoly. Capital intensive industries, high wage industries, and industries that do a lot of R&D have larger firms, as do industries that require little external financing. At the country level, the most salient findings are that countries with efficient judicial systems have larger firms, and, correcting for institutional development, there is little evidence that richer countries have...
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