NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

NBER Papers on Industrial Organization

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2016
w22873 Gautam Gowrisankaran
Keith A. Joiner
Jianjing Lin

Does Health IT Adoption Lead to Better Information or Worse Incentives?
w22876 Francesco Decarolis
Andrea Guglielmo

Insurers' Response to Selection Risk: Evidence from Medicare Enrollment Reforms
w22848 Laurent Frésard
Ulrich Hege
Gordon Phillips

Extending Industry Specialization through Cross-Border Acquisitions
w22811 Steven Berry
Philip Haile
Mark Israel
Michael Katz

Complementarity without Superadditivity
w22814 Francesco Decarolis
Giancarlo Spagnolo
Riccardo Pacini

Past Performance and Procurement Outcomes
w22826 Carrie Colla
Julie Bynum
Andrea Austin
Jonathan Skinner

Hospital Competition, Quality, and Expenditures in the U.S. Medicare Population
w22830 Matthew E. Kahn
Jerry Nickelsburg

An Economic Analysis of U.S Airline Fuel Economy Dynamics from 1991 to 2015
w22835 Kate Ho
Ariel Pakes
Mark Shepard

The Evolution of Health Insurer Costs in Massachusetts, 2010-12
w22836 John Asker
Chaim Fershtman
Jihye Jeon
Ariel Pakes

The Competitive Effects of Information Sharing
w22810 Suyoun Han
Morris M. Kleiner

Analyzing the Influence of Occupational Licensing Duration on Labor Market Outcomes
w22771 John Asker
Heski Bar-Isaac

Vertical Information Restraints: Pro- and Anti-Competitive Impacts of Minimum Advertised Price Restrictions
w22772 T. Renee Bowen
George Georgiadis
Nicolas S. Lambert

Collective Choice in Dynamic Public Good Provision
w22773 Hanming Fang
Zenan Wu

Multidimensional Private Information, Market Structure and Insurance Markets
w22776 Yanbo Ge
Christopher R. Knittel
Don MacKenzie
Stephen Zoepf

Racial and Gender Discrimination in Transportation Network Companies
w22783 Daron Acemoglu
Ufuk Akcigit
William Kerr

Innovation Network
w22750 Bruce A. Blonigen
Justin R. Pierce

Evidence for the Effects of Mergers on Market Power and Efficiency
w22730 Virginie Lurkin
Laurie A. Garrow
Matthew J. Higgins
Jeffrey P. Newman
Michael Schyns

Accounting for Price Endogeneity in Airline Itinerary Choice Models: An Application to Continental U.S. Markets
w22744 Shane Greenstein
Yuan Gu
Feng Zhu

Ideological Segregation among Online Collaborators: Evidence from Wikipedians
w22745 Leemore Dafny
Christopher Ody
Matthew Schmitt

When Discounts Raise Costs: The Effect of Copay Coupons on Generic Utilization
w22710 Benjamin B. Bederson
Ginger Zhe Jin
Phillip Leslie
Alexander J. Quinn
Ben Zou

Incomplete Disclosure: Evidence of Signaling and Countersignaling
w22716 Hugo Hopenhayn
Maryam Saeedi

Bidding Dynamics in Auctions
w22720 Mark Pauly
Kyle Myers

A Ricardian-Demand Explanation for Changing Pharmaceutical R&D Productivity
w22728 Holger Herz
Dmitry Taubinsky

What Makes a Price Fair? An Experimental Analysis of Transaction Experience and Endogenous Fairness Views
w22691 Bart J. Bronnenberg
Jean-Pierre H. Dubé

The Formation of Consumer Brand Preferences
w22675 Luis Aguiar
Joel Waldfogel

Quality Predictability and the Welfare Benefits from New Products: Evidence from the Digitization of Recorded Music
w22649 Andrew B. Bernard
Toshihiro Okubo

Product Switching and the Business Cycle
w22616 Michael Luca
Designing Online Marketplaces: Trust and Reputation Mechanisms
w22627 Peter Cohen
Robert Hahn
Jonathan Hall
Steven Levitt
Robert Metcalfe

Using Big Data to Estimate Consumer Surplus: The Case of Uber
w22631 Yasin Ozcan
Shane Greenstein

Technological Leadership (de)Concentration: Causes in ICTE
w22586 Fali Huang
Ginger Zhe Jin
Lixin Colin Xu

Love, Money, and Parental Goods: Does Parental Matchmaking Matter?
w22584 Lingfang (Ivy) Li
Steven Tadelis
Xiaolan Zhou

Buying Reputation as a Signal of Quality: Evidence from an Online Marketplace
w22598 Paul J. Eliason
Paul L. E. Grieco
Ryan C. McDevitt
James W. Roberts

Strategic Patient Discharge: The Case of Long-Term Care Hospitals
w22600 Mark Shepard
Hospital Network Competition and Adverse Selection: Evidence from the Massachusetts Health Insurance Exchange
w22602 Debraj Ray
Arthur Robson

Certified Random: A New Order for Co-Authorship
w22569 T. Kirk White
Jerome P. Reiter
Amil Petrin

Imputation in U.S. Manufacturing Data and Its Implications for Productivity Dispersion
w22582 Matthew Chesnes
Ginger Zhe Jin

Direct-to-Consumer Advertising and Online Search
w22532 Richard G. Newell
Brian C. Prest
Ashley Vissing

Trophy Hunting vs. Manufacturing Energy: The Price-Responsiveness of Shale Gas
w22548 Brian Adams
Joshua Gans
Richard Hayes
Ryan Lampe

Does Organizational Form Drive Competition? Evidence from Coffee Retailing
w22503 Frank A. Wolak
Designing Nonlinear Price Schedules for Urban Water Utilities to Balance Revenue and Conservation Goals
w22486 Philip Brookins
Jennifer Brown
Dmitry Ryvkin

Peer Information and Risk-taking under Competitive and Non-competitive Pay Schemes
w22490 Cosmin L. Ilut
Rosen Valchev
Nicolas Vincent

Paralyzed by Fear: Rigid and Discrete Pricing under Demand Uncertainty
w22494 Frank A. Wolak
Level versus Variability Trade-offs in Wind and Solar Generation Investments: The Case of California
w22473 Wendy C.Y. Li
Bronwyn H. Hall

Depreciation of Business R&D Capital
w22437 Allan Collard-Wexler
Jan De Loecker

Production Function Estimation with Measurement Error in Inputs
w22448 Eric Budish
Judd B. Kessler

Bringing Real Market Participants' Real Preferences into the Lab: An Experiment that Changed the Course Allocation Mechanism at Wharton
w22427 Andre Boik
Shane Greenstein
Jeffrey Prince

The Empirical Economics of Online Attention
w22386 John J. Horton
Richard J. Zeckhauser

The Causes of Peer Effects in Production: Evidence from a Series of Field Experiments
w22375 Matthew Backus
Gregory Lewis

Dynamic Demand Estimation in Auction Markets
w22367 Koichiro Ito
Shuang Zhang

Willingness to Pay for Clean Air: Evidence from Air Purifier Markets in China
w22369 Liran Einav
Amy Finkelstein
Paul Schrimpf

Bunching at The Kink: Implications for Spending Responses to Health Insurance Contracts
w22345 Laurence Levin
Matthew S. Lewis
Frank A. Wolak

High Frequency Evidence on the Demand for Gasoline
w22353 David Besanko
David Dranove
Craig Garthwaite

Insurance and the High Prices of Pharmaceuticals
w22327 Nicholas Bloom
Raffaella Sadun
John Van Reenen

Management as a Technology?
w22302 Thomas Blake
Chris Nosko
Steven Tadelis

Returns to Consumer Search: Evidence from eBay
w22305 Casey B. Mulligan
Kevin K. Tsui

The Upside-down Economics of Regulated and Otherwise Rigid Prices
w22313 Bogdan Genchev
Julie Holland Mortimer

Empirical Evidence on Conditional Pricing Practices
w22289 Jeffrey R. Campbell
Thomas Hubbard

The Economics of "Radiator Springs:" Industry Dynamics, Sunk Costs, and Spatial Demand Shifts
w22292 Kenneth Lee
Edward Miguel
Catherine Wolfram

Experimental Evidence on the Demand for and Costs of Rural Electrification
w22277 Liran Einav
Amy Finkelstein
Maria Polyakova

Private Provision of Social Insurance: Drug-specific Price Elasticities and Cost Sharing in Medicare Part D
w22281 Sharat Ganapati
Joseph S. Shapiro
Reed Walker

Energy Prices, Pass-Through, and Incidence in U.S. Manufacturing
w22219 Claudia Möllers
Hans-Theo Normann
Christopher M. Snyder

Communication in Vertical Markets: Experimental Evidence
w22236 Felix Tintelnot
Global Production with Export Platforms
w22203 S. Nageeb Ali
Roland Bénabou

Image Versus Information: Changing Societal Norms and Optimal Privacy
w22186 Bryan S. Graham
Homophily and Transitivity in Dynamic Network Formation
w22148 Efraim Benmelech
Ralf R. Meisenzahl
Rodney Ramcharan

The Real Effects of Liquidity During the Financial Crisis: Evidence from Automobiles
w22113 Omar Al-Ubaydli
John A. List

Field Experiments in Markets
w22114 Andrew B. Bernard
Valerie Smeets
Frederic Warzynski

Rethinking Deindustrialization
w22106 Leemore Dafny
Kate Ho
Robin S. Lee

The Price Effects of Cross-Market Hospital Mergers
w22098 Bryan S. Graham
Guido W. Imbens
Geert Ridder

Identification and Efficiency Bounds for the Average Match Function under Conditionally Exogenous Matching
w22088 Rhiannon Jerch
Matthew E. Kahn
Shanjun Li

Efficient Local Government Service Provision: The Role of Privatization and Public Sector Unions
w22101 Stefan Bender
Nicholas Bloom
David Card
John Van Reenen
Stefanie Wolter

Management Practices, Workforce Selection and Productivity
w22067 Jean-Pierre H. Dubé
Zheng Fang
Nathan Fong
Xueming Luo

Competitive Price Targeting with Smartphone Coupons
w22082 Hong Luo
Julie Holland Mortimer

Copyright Enforcement: Evidence from Two Field Experiments
w22086 Ariel Pakes
Empirical Tools and Competition Analysis: Past Progress and Current Problems
w22063 Mark R. Jacobsen
Christopher R. Knittel
James M. Sallee
Arthur A. van Benthem

Sufficient Statistics for Imperfect Externality-Correcting Policies
w22065 Patrick Bayer
Kyle Mangum
James W. Roberts

Speculative Fever: Investor Contagion in the Housing Bubble
w22029 John J. Horton
Richard J. Zeckhauser

Owning, Using and Renting: Some Simple Economics of the "Sharing Economy"
w22038 Dominic Coey
Bradley Larsen
Brennan Platt

A Theory of Bidding Dynamics and Deadlines in Online Retail
w22039 Matthew Grennan
Ashley Swanson

Transparency and Negotiated Prices: The Value of Information in Hospital-Supplier Bargaining
w22040 Joshua S. Gans
Michael L. Katz

Net Neutrality, Pricing Instruments and Incentives
w22050 Mark Egan
Gregor Matvos
Amit Seru

The Market for Financial Adviser Misconduct
w21999 Ariel Pakes
Methodological Issues in Analyzing Market Dynamics
w21984 Paolo Bertoletti
Federico Etro
Ina Simonovska

International Trade with Indirect Additivity
w21994 Jan De Loecker
Johannes Van Biesebroeck

Effect of International Competition on Firm Productivity and Market Power
w21996 Ulrich Doraszelski
Gregory Lewis
Ariel Pakes

Just Starting Out: Learning and Equilibrium in a New Market
w21968 David A. Bielen
Richard G. Newell
William A. Pizer

Who Did the Ethanol Tax Credit Benefit? An Event Analysis of Subsidy Incidence
w21931 Greg Kaplan
Guido Menzio
Leena Rudanko
Nicholas Trachter

Relative Price Dispersion: Evidence and Theory
w21950 Shane Greenstein
Martin Peitz
Tommaso Valletti

Net Neutrality: A Fast Lane to Understanding the Trade-offs
w21905 Ufuk Akcigit
Harun Alp
Michael Peters

Lack of Selection and Limits to Delegation: Firm Dynamics in Developing Countries
w21889 Eric Budish
Benjamin N. Roin
Heidi L. Williams

Patents and Research Investments: Assessing the Empirical Evidence
w21893 Ariel Pakes
Jack Porter

Moment Inequalities for Multinomial Choice with Fixed Effects
w21855 David C. Chan
Jr

Informational Frictions and Practice Variation: Evidence from Physicians in Training
2015
w21832 Gregory S. Crawford
Robin S. Lee
Michael D. Whinston
Ali Yurukoglu

The Welfare Effects of Vertical Integration in Multichannel Television Markets
w21833 Benjamin Lester
Ali Shourideh
Venky Venkateswaran
Ariel Zetlin-Jones

Screening and Adverse Selection in Frictional Markets
w21819 Nathaniel Hendren
Knowledge of Future Job Loss and Implications for Unemployment Insurance
w21783 Amanda Starc
Robert J. Town

Internalizing Behavioral Externalities: Benefit Integration in Health Insurance
w21797 Keith Marzilli Ericson
Philipp Kircher
Johannes Spinnewijn
Amanda Starc

Inferring Risk Perceptions and Preferences using Choice from Insurance Menus: Theory and Evidence
w21769 Alberto Galasso
Mark Schankerman

Patent Rights, Innovation and Firm Exit
w21759 Benjamin R. Handel
Jonathan T. Kolstad
Johannes Spinnewijn

Information Frictions and Adverse Selection: Policy Interventions in Health Insurance Markets
w21749 Ralph S.J. Koijen
Motohiro Yogo

An Equilibrium Model of Institutional Demand and Asset Prices
w21718 Orazio Attanasio
Elena Pastorino

Nonlinear Pricing in Village Economies
w21732 David Berger
Joseph Vavra

Dynamics of the U.S. Price Distribution
w21704 Tianshu Sun
Guodong (Gordon) Gao
Ginger Zhe Jin

Mobile Messaging for Offline Social Interactions: a Large Field Experiment
w21678 Fiona Scott Morton
Carl Shapiro

Patent Assertions: Are We Any Closer to Aligning Reward to Contribution?
w21679 Maxime C. Cohen
Georgia Perakis
Robert S. Pindyck

Pricing with Limited Knowledge of Demand
w21651 Michael Cooper
John McClelland
James Pearce
Richard Prisinzano
Joseph Sullivan
Danny Yagan
Owen Zidar
Eric Zwick

Business in the United States: Who Owns it and How Much Tax Do They Pay?
w21653 Luis Aguiar
Joel Waldfogel

Streaming Reaches Flood Stage: Does Spotify Stimulate or Depress Music Sales?
w21666 Bhaven Sampat
Heidi L. Williams

How Do Patents Affect Follow-On Innovation? Evidence from the Human Genome
w21640 Kala Krishna
Sergey Lychagin
Verónica Frisancho Robles

Retaking in High Stakes Exams: Is Less More?
w21641 Kate Ho
Adam M. Rosen

Partial Identification in Applied Research: Benefits and Challenges
w21621 Steven Berry
Alon Eizenberg
Joel Waldfogel

Optimal Product Variety in Radio Markets
w21627 Christopher R. Knittel
Konstantinos Metaxoglou
Andre Trindade

Natural Gas Prices and Coal Displacement: Evidence from Electricity Markets
w21632 Zarek C. Brot-Goldberg
Amitabh Chandra
Benjamin R. Handel
Jonathan T. Kolstad

What Does a Deductible Do? The Impact of Cost-Sharing on Health Care Prices, Quantities, and Spending Dynamics
w21603 Amitabh Chandra
Amy Finkelstein
Adam Sacarny
Chad Syverson

Healthcare Exceptionalism? Performance and Allocation in the U.S. Healthcare Sector
w21582 Laura Alfaro
Pol Antràs
Davin Chor
Paola Conconi

Internalizing Global Value Chains: A Firm-Level Analysis
w21583 A. Kerem Cosar
Paul L. E. Grieco
Shengyu Li
Felix Tintelnot

What Drives Home Market Advantage?
w21567 Sumit Agarwal
Souphala Chomsisengphet
Neale Mahoney
Johannes Stroebel

Do Banks Pass Through Credit Expansions to Consumers Who Want to Borrow?
w21522 Xing Li
Megan MacGarvie
Petra Moser

Dead Poet's Property - How Does Copyright Influence Price?
w21527 Myrto Kalouptsidi
Paul T. Scott
Eduardo Souza-Rodrigues

Identification of Counterfactuals in Dynamic Discrete Choice Models
w21541 Maria Polyakova
Regulation of Insurance with Adverse Selection and Switching Costs: Evidence from Medicare Part D.
w21500 Steven T. Berry
Philip Haile

Identification in Differentiated Products Markets
w21512 Sumit Agarwal
Gene Amromin
Souphala Chomsisengphet
Tomasz Piskorski
Amit Seru
Vincent Yao

Mortgage Refinancing, Consumer Spending, and Competition: Evidence from the Home Affordable Refinancing Program
w21475 Jean-Pierre Dubé
Xueming Luo
Zheng Fang

Self-Signaling and Prosocial Behavior: a Cause Marketing Mobile Field Experiment
w21488 Kyle Bagwell
Robert W. Staiger
Ali Yurukoglu

Multilateral Trade Bargaining: A First Look at the GATT Bargaining Records
w21489 Panle Jia Barwick
Parag A. Pathak
Maisy Wong

Conflicts of Interest and the Realtor Commission Puzzle
w21493 Guido Menzio
Nicholas Trachter

Equilibrium Price Dispersion Across and Within Stores
w21496 Liran Einav
Chiara Farronato
Jonathan Levin

Peer-to-Peer Markets
w21446 Jean-Pierre Dubé
Günter J. Hitsch
Peter E. Rossi

Income and Wealth Effects on Private-Label Demand: Evidence From the Great Recession
w21462 Pietro Bonaldi
Ali Hortaçsu
Jakub Kastl

An Empirical Analysis of Funding Costs Spillovers in the EURO-zone with Application to Systemic Risk
w21464 Ali Hortaçsu
Chad Syverson

The Ongoing Evolution of US Retail: A Format Tug-of-War
w21360 Stefano DellaVigna
Eliana La Ferrara

Economic and Social Impacts of the Media
w21361 Pablo Celhay
Paul Gertler
Paula Giovagnoli
Christel Vermeersch

Long Run Effects of Temporary Incentives on Medical Care Productivity
w21366 Deborah Goldschmidt
Johannes F. Schmieder

The Rise of Domestic Outsourcing and the Evolution of the German Wage Structure
w21374 John F. Helliwell
Shun Wang

How was the Weekend? How the Social Context Underlies Weekend Effects in Happiness and other Emotions for US Workers
w21321 Aviv Nevo
John L. Turner
Jonathan W. Williams

Usage-Based Pricing and Demand for Residential Broadband
w21351 Michael J. Dickstein
Eduardo Morales

What do Exporters Know?
w21313 Susan Athey
Dean Eckles
Guido W. Imbens

Exact P-values for Network Interference
w21312 Tianshu Sun
Susan Feng Lu
Ginger Zhe Jin

Solving Shortage in a Priceless Market: Insights from Blood Donation
w21318 Aviv Nevo
Arlene Wong

The Elasticity of Substitution Between Time and Market Goods: Evidence from the Great Recession
w21304 Liran Einav
Amy Finkelstein
Raymond Kluender
Paul Schrimpf

Beyond Statistics: The Economic Content of Risk Scores
w21285 Matthew Backus
Tom Blake
Steven Tadelis

Cheap Talk, Round Numbers, and the Economics of Negotiation
w21298 Francesco Decarolis
Maria Polyakova
Stephen P. Ryan

The Welfare Effects of Supply-Side Regulations in Medicare Part D
w21259 James B. Bushnell
Stephen P. Holland
Jonathan E. Hughes
Christopher R. Knittel

Strategic Policy Choice in State-Level Regulation: The EPA's Clean Power Plan
w21267 Andrew W. Lo
The Gordon Gekko Effect: The Role of Culture in the Financial Industry
w21199 Jae Song
David J. Price
Fatih Guvenen
Nicholas Bloom
Till von Wachter

Firming Up Inequality
w21167 Louis Kaplow
Market Definition, Market Power
w21124 Carlos A. Manzanares
Ying Jiang
Patrick Bajari

Improving Policy Functions in High-Dimensional Dynamic Games
w21125 Patrick Bajari
Victor Chernozhukov
Han Hong
Denis Nekipelov

Identification and Efficient Semiparametric Estimation of a Dynamic Discrete Game
w21129 Gautam Gowrisankaran
Charles He
Eric A. Lutz
Jefferey L. Burgess

Productivity, Safety, and Regulation in Coal Mining: Evidence from Disasters and Fatalities
w21113 Severin Borenstein
James Bushnell

The U.S. Electricity Industry After 20 Years of Restructuring
w21115 Catherine Hausman
Ryan Kellogg

Welfare and Distributional Implications of Shale Gas
w21099 Ginger Zhe Jin
Michael Luca
Daniel Martin

Is No News (Perceived as) Bad News? An Experimental Investigation of Information Disclosure
w21104 Christina M. Dalton
Gautam Gowrisankaran
Robert Town

Myopia and Complex Dynamic Incentives: Evidence from Medicare Part D
w21074 David M. Byrne
Stephen D. Oliner
Daniel E. Sichel

How Fast are Semiconductor Prices Falling?
w21082 Andrew B. Bernard
Andreas Moxnes
Yukiko U. Saito

Production Networks, Geography and Firm Performance
w21083 Laurent Bouton
Georg Kirchsteiger

Good Rankings Are Bad: Why Reliable Rankings Can Hurt Consumers
w21090 Alexander Galetovic
Stephen Haber
Ross Levine

An Empirical Examination of Patent Hold-up
w21067 James Rauch
Dynastic Entrepreneurship, Entry, and Non-Compete Enforcement
w20992 Ying Feng
James E. Rauch

The Impact of Entrepreneurial Risk Aversion on Wages in General Equilibrium
w21045 Michael Sinkinson
Amanda Starc

Ask Your Doctor? Direct-to-Consumer Advertising of Pharmaceuticals
w21046 Atila Abdulkadiroğlu
Nikhil Agarwal
Parag A. Pathak

The Welfare Effects of Coordinated Assignment: Evidence from the NYC HS Match
w21033 Denis Chetverikov
Bradley Larsen
Christopher Palmer

IV Quantile Regression for Group-level Treatments, with an Application to the Distributional Effects of Trade
w21012 Michael Kremer
Christopher Snyder

Preventives Versus Treatments
w21028 Kate Ho
Joseph Hogan
Fiona Scott Morton

The Impact of Consumer Inattention on Insurer Pricing in the Medicare Part D Program
w20999 Severin Borenstein
James Bushnell
Frank A. Wolak
Matthew Zaragoza-Watkins

Expecting the Unexpected:
Emissions Uncertainty and Environmental Market Design
w21000 Austan D. Goolsbee
Alan B. Krueger

A Retrospective Look at Rescuing and Restructuring General Motors and Chrysler
w20966 James A. Brander
Barbara J. Spencer

Endogenous Horizontal Product Differentiation under Bertrand and Cournot Competition: Revisiting the Bertrand Paradox
w20981 Matthew Grennan
Robert Town

Regulating Innovation with Uncertain Quality: Information, Risk, and Access in Medical Devices
w20988 Ali Hortaçsu
Seyed Ali Madanizadeh
Steven L. Puller

Power to Choose? An Analysis of Consumer Inertia in the Residential Electricity Market
w20955 Patrick Bajari
Denis Nekipelov
Stephen P. Ryan
Miaoyu Yang

Demand Estimation with Machine Learning and Model Combination
w20961 Maury Gittleman
Mark A. Klee
Morris M. Kleiner

Analyzing the Labor Market Outcomes of Occupational Licensing
w20942 Matthew Backus
Tom Blake
Dimitriy V. Masterov
Steven Tadelis

Is Sniping A Problem For Online Auction Markets?
w20903 Richard T. Thakor
Andrew W. Lo

Competition and R&D Financing Decisions: Theory and Evidence from the Biopharmaceutical Industry
w20907 Michael J. Dickstein
Mark Duggan
Joseph Orsini
Pietro Tebaldi

The Impact of Market Size and Composition on Health Insurance Premiums: Evidence from the First Year of the ACA
w20910 Koichiro Ito
Takanori Ida
Makoto Tanaka

The Persistence of Moral Suasion and Economic Incentives: Field Experimental Evidence from Energy Demand
w20846 Mu-Jeung Yang
Lorenz Kueng
Bryan Hong

Business Strategy and the Management of Firms
w20830 Chris Nosko
Steven Tadelis

The Limits of Reputation in Platform Markets: An Empirical Analysis and Field Experiment

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