NBER Working Papers by Silvana Tenreyro

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Working Papers

January 2005Is Poland the Next Spain?
with Francesco Caselli: w11045
We revisit Western Europe's record with labor-productivity convergence, and tentatively extrapolate its implications for the future path of Eastern Europe. The poorer Western European countries caught up with the richer ones through both higher rates of physical capital accumulation and greater total factor productivity gains. These (relatively) high rates of capital accumulation and TFP growth reflect convergence along two margins. One margin (between industry) is a massive reallocation of labor from agriculture to manufacturing and services, which have higher capital intensity and use resources more efficiently. The other margin (within industry) reflects capital deepening and technology catch-up at the industry level. In Eastern Europe the employment share of agriculture is typically qu...


January 2003Economic Effects of Currency Unions
with Robert J. Barro: w9435
This paper develops a new instrumental-variable (IV) approach to estimate the effects of different exchange rate regimes on bilateral outcomes. The basic idea is that the characteristics of the exchange rate regime between two countries (exchange rate variability, fixed or float, autonomous or common currencies) are partially related to the independent decisions of these countries to peg explicitly or de facto to a third currency, notably that of a main anchor. Our approach is to use this component of the exchange rate regime as an IV in regressions of bilateral outcomes. We illustrate the methodology with one specific application: the economic e.ects of currency unions. The likelihood that two countries independently adopt the currency of the same anchor country is used as an instrument...

Published: Barro, Robert and Silvana Tenreyro. "Economic Effects Of Currency Unions." Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International (2007), vol. 45(1): 1-23. citation courtesy of

July 2002Optimal Currency Areas
with Alberto Alesina, Robert J. Barro: w9072
As the number of independent countries increases and their economies become more integrated, we would expect to observe more multi-country currency unions. This paper explores the pros and cons for different countries to adopt as an anchor the dollar, the euro, or the yen. Although there appear to be reasonably well-defined euro and dollar areas, there does not seem to be a yen area. We also address the question of how trade and co-movements of outputs and prices would respond to the formation of a currency union. This response is important because the decision of a country to join a union would depend on how the union affects trade and co-movements.

Published: Optimal Currency Areas, Alberto Alesina, Robert J. Barro, Silvana Tenreyro. in NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2002, Volume 17, Gertler and Rogoff. 2003

December 2000Closed and Open Economy Models of Business Cycles with Marked Up and Sticky Prices
with Robert J. Barro: w8043
Shifts in the extent of competition, which affect markup ratios, are possible sources of aggregate business fluctuations. Markups are countercyclical, and booms are times at which the economy operates more efficiently. We begin with a real model in which markup ratios correspond to the prices of differentiated intermediate inputs relative to the price of undifferentiated final product. If the nominal prices of the differentiated goods are relatively sticky, then unexpected inflation reduces the relative price of intermediates and thereby mimics the output effects from an increase in competition. In an open economy, domestic output is stimulated by reductions in the relative price of foreign intermediates and, therefore, by unexpected inflation abroad. The various versions of the model...


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