NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

NBER Working Papers by Todd J. Kumler

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Working Papers

August 2013Enlisting Employees in Improving Payroll-Tax Compliance: Evidence from Mexico
with Eric Verhoogen, Judith A. Frías: w19385
A growing body of research suggests that difficulties in collecting taxes are an important constraint on economic performance in developing countries. Evidence from rich countries points to third- party reporting — in particular, employer reports of employees' wages — as a potential remedy. To what extent does the accuracy of third-party reporting carry over to developing countries, with their weaker enforcement regimes? In this paper, we compare two sources of wage information from Mexico — firms' reports of individuals' wages to the Mexican social security agency and individuals' responses to a household labor-force survey — to investigate the extent of wage under-reporting by formal firms and how it responded to an important change in the social security system. We document that under-r...
June 2011Improving Reading Skills by Encouraging Children to Read in School: A Randomized Evaluation of the Sa Aklat Sisikat Reading Program in the Philippines
with Ama Baafra Abeberese, Leigh L. Linden: w17185
We show that a short-term (31 day) reading program, designed to provide age-appropriate reading material, to train teachers in their use, and to support teachers' initial efforts for about a month improves students' reading skills by 0.13 standard deviations. The effect is still present three months after the program but diminishes to 0.06 standard deviations, probably due to a reduced emphasis on reading after the program. We find that the program also encourages students to read more on their own at home. We find no evidence that improved reading ability improves test scores on other subjects.

Abeberese, Ama Baafra, Todd J. Kumler and Leig h L. Linden. Forthcoming. "Improving Reading Skills by Encouraging Children to Read in Schoo l: A Randomized Evaluation of the Sa Aklat Sisikat Reading Program in the Philippines," The Journal of Human Resources.

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