NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

NBER Working Papers by Robert Schwab

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Working Papers

September 2002Changing Labor Market Opportunities for Women and the Quality of Teachers 1957-1992
with Sean P. Corcoran, William N. Evans: w9180
School officials and policy makers have grown increasingly concerned about their ability to attract and retain talented teachers. A number of authors have shown that in recent years the brightest students at least those with the highest verbal and math scores on standardized tests are less likely to enter teaching. In addition, it is frequently claimed that the ability of schools to attract these top students has been steadily declining for years. There is, however, surprisingly little evidence measuring the extent to which this popular proposition is true. We have good reason to suspect that the quality of those entering teaching has fallen over time. Teaching has remained a predominately female profession for years; at the same time, the employment opportunities for talented women ou...
November 1993Endogenous Growth, Public Capital, and the Convergence of Regional Manufacturing Industries
with Charles R. Hulten: w4538
Several explanations can be offered for the unbalanced growth of U.S. regional manufacturing industries in the decades after World War II. The convergence hypothesis suggests that the success of the South in catching up to the Northeast and Midwest should be understood by analogy with the economic success of Japan and the rest of the G-7 in closing the gap relative to the U.S. as a whole. Endogenous growth theory, on the other hand, assigns a central role to capital formation, broadly defined. A variant of endogenous growth theory focuses on investments in public infrastructure as a key determinant of regional growth. Finally, traditional location theory stresses the evolution of regional supply and demand and the role of economies of scale and agglomeration. This paper compares these ...
December 1991Consumption Taxes in a Life-Cycle Framework: Are Sin Taxes Regressive?
with Andrew B. Lyon: w3932
In this paper we construct measures of tax incidence over the life-cycle and compare these measures to traditional measures based on annual data. We show that annual measures of the incidence of taxes on consumption goods may differ from life-cycle measures for three reasons. First, annual measures of income reflect transitory components which should have smaller effects on consumption than permanent changes in income. Second, income measured in a single period differs from lifetime income due to age-related differences in earnings. Third, consumption of certain items follows life-cycle patterns independent of changes in income. Surprisingly, we find that these effects cause almost no change in the assessment of the incidence of taxes applying to the consumption of cigarettes. For alcohol,...
July 1987Income Originating in the State and Local Sector
with Charles R. Hulten: w2314
In this paper we develop an accounting framework for the state and local sector which is consistent with the accounting framework for the private sector of the economy. We show that the public sector capital stock generates an imputed return which takes the form of a reduction in local taxes and that failure to recognize this income distorts the measurement of the output of this sector, confuses the debate over federal tax reform, and hides the distinction between general subsidies for capital formation. Our implementation of those accounts for the 1959- 1985 period indicates that current national income accounting procedures misstate the amount of income originating in the state and local sector; in recent years this misstatement has been on the order of $100 billion. We also show that th...

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