NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

NBER Working Papers by Martina Viarengo

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Working Papers

April 2014Colonial Institutions, Commodity Booms, and the Diffusion of Elementary Education in Brazil, 1889-1930
with Aldo Musacchio, Andre Martinez: w20029
We explain how the decentralization of fiscal responsibility among Brazilian states between 1889 and 1930 promoted a unequal expansion in public schooling. We document how the variation in state export tax revenues, product of commodity booms, explains increases in expenditures on education, literacy, and schools per children. Yet we also find that such improvements did not take place in states that either had more slaves before abolition or cultivated cotton during colonial times. Beyond path-dependence, ours story emphasizes the interaction between colonial institutions and subsequent fiscal changes to explain radical changes in the ranking of states which persists until today.
August 2010Variation in Educational Outcomes and Policies across Countries and of Schools within Countries
with Richard B. Freeman, Stephen Machin: w16293
This study examines the variation in educational outcomes across and within countries using the TIMSS mathematics tests. It documents the wide cross-country variation in the level and dispersion of test scores. Countries with the highest test scores are those with the least inequality in scores, which suggests a "virtuous" equity-efficiency trade-off in improving educational outcomes. Analyzing the association of gender, immigrant status, and family background factors with scores, we find large cross-country differences in the relation between those factors and scores.

Published: 'Inequality of Educational Outcomes: International Evidence From PISA', Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies, Special Issue on PISA, (with R. F reeman and M. Viarengo), 11, 5-20 (2011)

Contact and additional information for this authorAll NBER papers and publicationsNBER Working Papers only

 
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