NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

NBER Working Papers by Maria J. Hanratty

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Working Papers

December 1993The Labor Market Effects of Introducing National Health Insurance: Evidence from Canada
with Jonathan Gruber: w4589
While National Health Insurance (NHI) plans in the U.S. are often opposed on the basis of their potential disemployment effects, there is no existing evidence on the effects of NHI on employment. We provide such evidence by examining the employment consequences of NHI in Canada, using the fact that NHI was introduced on a staggered basis across the Canadian provinces. We examine monthly data on employment, wages, and hours across 8 industries and 10 provinces over the 1961- 1975 period. We find that employment actually rose after the introduction of NHI; wages increased as well, while average hours were unchanged.
October 1990Down and Out in North America: Recent Trends in Poverty Rates in the U.S. and Canada
with Rebecca M. Blank: w3462
This paper documents the striking difference in U. S. and Canadian poverty trends from 1970 to 1986. While U.S. poverty has shown no consistent trend since 1970, Canadian poverty decreased by 60%. This paper examines why U. S. and Canadian poverty trends differed during two periods: 1970-1979 and 1979-1986. During the 1970s, we find that the principle reason for declining Canadian poverty rates is higher economic growth. During the 1980s, we find that differences in government transfers are the main cause of relative poverty change in the two countries. Virtually all of the 3.5 difference in U.S. and Canadian poverty changes from 1979 to 1986 can be attributed to differences in the proportion of families moved out of poverty by transfers. This may reflect both the expansion in social assis...

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