NBER Working Papers by Edgar Cudmore

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Working Papers

October 2007Income Tax Design and the Desirability of Subsidies to Secondary Workers in a Household Model with Joint and Non-Joint Time
with John Piggott, John Whalley: w13503
In this paper we analyze income tax design in a two member household labor supply model where time spent on consumption together by the two household members is valued differently from time spent apart. We treat consumption as a non excludable public good to members of the household; one example would be where all household members or one alone can watch TV. When jointly consumed, however, TV services are valued more highly than the same consumption undertaken separately. We use this model to numerically investigate the welfare implications of different tax structures. In sharp contrast to existing literature, our results suggest the desirability of subsidizing secondary worker's labor supply. We also relate our discussion to existing individual-household tax unit literature.
December 2003Regeneration, Labour Supply and the Welfare Costs of Taxes
with John Whalley: w10138
This paper sets out alternatives to the traditional model of labour supply used to analyse the welfare costs of income and/or sales taxes when preferences are defined over goods and leisure and the market wage yields the slope of the budget constraint. The innovation in our work is to assume that some or all of non market time is used to regenerate the productivity of labour through rest and relaxation. This model has no closed form solution, but we can work with the first order conditions numerically for specific functional forms using non linear solution software. We generate a number of alternative parameterizations of this model through a series of calibrations to the same synthetic base case data set. Across the resulting parameterizations the welfare costs of taxes vary substantially...
February 2003Border Delays and Trade Liberalization
with John Whalley: w9485
Delays at the border for customs clearance are seemingly a central feature of the trade regime in the CIS states. Here, we argue that with queuing costs being endogenously determined in such circumstances tariff liberalization (even in the small economy case) can be welfare worsening since tariff revenues are replaced by resource using queuing costs. On the other hand, corruption can be welfare improving if queuing costs are replaced by resource transferring bribes. We also show how added distortions between perishable and non-perishable, or between light and heavy goods can also arise. We show these outcomes using a simple general equilibrium model, and explore the numerical implications using Russian data. The orders of magnitude are both significant and opposite in sign to conventional ...

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