NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

# NBER Working Papers by Andres Santos

## Working Papers

 February 2011 Higher Order Properties of the Wild Bootstrap Under Misspecification with Patrick M. Kline: w16793 We examine the higher order properties of the wild bootstrap (Wu, 1986) in a linear regression model with stochastic regressors. We find that the ability of the wild bootstrap to provide a higher order refinement is contingent upon whether the errors are mean independent of the regressors or merely uncorrelated. In the latter case, the wild bootstrap may fail to match some of the terms in an Edgeworth expansion of the full sample test statistic, potentially leading to only a partial refinement (Liu and Singh, 1987). To assess the practical implications of this result, we conduct a Monte Carlo study contrasting the performance of the wild bootstrap with the traditional nonparametric bootstrap.Published: Kline, Patrick & Santos, Andres, 2012. "Higher order properties of the wild bootstrap under misspecification," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 171(1), pages 54-70. citation courtesy of June 2010 A Score Based Approach to Wild Bootstrap Inference with Patrick M. Kline: w16127 We propose a generalization of the wild bootstrap of Wu (1986) and Liu (1988) based upon perturbing the scores of M-estimators. This "score bootstrap" procedure avoids recomputing the estimator in each bootstrap iteration, making it substantially less costly to compute than the conventional nonparametric bootstrap, particularly in complex nonlinear models. Despite this computational advantage, in the linear model, the score bootstrap studentized test statistic is equivalent to that of the conventional wild bootstrap up to order O_p(n^(-1)). We establish the consistency of the procedure for Wald and Lagrange Multiplier type tests and tests of moment restrictions for a w...Published: Kline Patrick & Santos Andres, 2012. "A Score Based Approach to Wild Bootstrap Inference," Journal of Econometric Methods, De Gruyter, vol. 1(1), pages 23-41, August. citation courtesy of February 2010 Sensitivity to Missing Data Assumptions: Theory and An Evaluation of the U.S. Wage Structure with Patrick Kline: w15716 This paper develops methods for assessing the sensitivity of empirical conclusions regarding conditional distributions to departures from the missing at random (MAR) assumption. We index the degree of non-ignorable selection governing the missingness process by the maximal Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) distance between the distributions of missing and observed outcomes across all values of the covariates. Sharp bounds on minimum mean square approximations to conditional quantiles are derived as a function of the nominal level of selection considered in the sensitivity analysis and a weighted bootstrap procedure is developed for conducting inference. Using these techniques, we conduct an empirical assessment of the sensitivity of observed earnings patterns in U.S. Census data to deviations from t...Published: Patrick Kline & Andres Santos, 2013. "Sensitivity to missing data assumptions: Theory and an evaluation of the U.S. wage structure," Quantitative Economics, Econometric Society, vol. 4(2), pages 231-267, 07. citation courtesy of

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