NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

NBER Working Papers by Alvaro Garcia Marin

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Working Papers

September 2014Constitutional Rights and Education: An International Comparative Study
with Sebastian Edwards: w20475
We investigate whether the inclusion of social rights in political constitutions affects social performance. More specifically, we analyze whether including the right to education in the constitution has been related to better “educational outcomes.” We rely on data for 61 countries that participated in the 2012 PISA tests. Our results are strong and robust to the estimation technique: we find that there is no evidence that including the right to education in the constitution has been associated with higher test scores. The quality of education depends on socioeconomic, structural, and policy variables, such as expenditure per student, the teacher-pupil ratio, and families’ background. When these covariates are excluded, the relation between the strength of constitutional educational right...
May 2013Exporting and Plant-Level Efficiency Gains: It’s in the Measure
with Nico Voigtländer: w19033
While there is strong evidence for productivity-driven selection into exporting, previous research has mostly failed to identify export-related efficiency gains within plants. This nonresult is derived from revenue productivity, thus also reflecting prices. Using a census panel of Chilean manufacturing plants, we first confirm the non-result for revenue productivity. We then compute plant-product level marginal cost as an efficiency measure that is not affected by prices. We find within-plant efficiency gains of 15-25%, the same order of magnitude as selection effects across plants. Evidence suggests that technology upgrading in combination with export entry is an important driver behind these gains.

Contact and additional information for this authorAll NBER papers and publicationsNBER Working Papers only

 
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