NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

NBER Publications by Jessica Wolpaw Reyes

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Working Papers and Chapters

August 2012Lead Policy and Academic Performance: Insights from Massachusetts
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Childhood exposure to even low levels of lead can adversely affect neurodevelopment, behavior, and cognitive performance. This paper investigates the link between lead exposure and student achievement in Massachusetts. Panel data analysis is conducted at the school-cohort level for children born between 1991 and 2000 and attending 3rd and 4th grades between 2000 and 2009 at more than 1,000 public elementary schools in the state. Massachusetts is well-suited for this analysis both because it has been a leader in the reduction of childhood lead levels and also because it has mandated standardized achievement tests in public elementary schools for almost two decades. The paper finds that elevated levels of blood lead in early childhood adversely impact standardized test performance, even ...
March 2010The Effect of Malpractice Liability on the Specialty of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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Using data from a 2003 survey of 1,476 obstetrician-gynecologists, the effects of malpractice pressure on the specialty are investigated. Physicians report having made substantial changes to their practice in response to the general environment and to liability pressures. Regression analysis finds that liability pressure increases reports of income and practice reductions, but direct effects on actual income and productivity are less clear. Liability pressures may lead to a specialization effect, with some physicians concentrating more in obstetrics and others in gynecological surgery. Overall, the evidence suggests that liability pressure has moderate but significant effects on the specialty.
May 2007Environmental Policy as Social Policy? The Impact of Childhood Lead Exposure on Crime
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Childhood lead exposure can lead to psychological deficits that are strongly associated with aggressive and criminal behavior. In the late 1970s in the United States, lead was removed from gasoline under the Clean Air Act. Using the sharp state-specific reductions in lead exposure resulting from this removal, this article finds that the reduction in childhood lead exposure in the late 1970s and early 1980s is responsible for significant declines in violent crime in the 1990s, and may cause further declines into the future. The elasticity of violent crime with respect to lead is estimated to be approximately 0.8.
September 2006Do Female Physicians Capture Their Scarcity Value? The Case of OB/GYNs
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This paper analyzes how the imperfectly competitive market for Obstetricians and Gynecologists clears in the face of an excess demand for female OB/GYNs. This excess demand results from the convergence of three factors: i) all OB/GYN patients are women, ii) many women prefer to be treated by a female OB/GYN, iii) only a small portion of OB/GYNs are female. The paper finds that both money and non-money prices adjust: female OB/GYNs charge higher fees and also have longer waiting times. Furthermore, these effects are mediated by institutional structure: in contract settings in which money prices are rigid (i.e. managed care), waiting times are more likely to adjust, and in settings in which money prices are more flexible, the reverse occurs. In the end, female OB/GYNs are able to captur...

Contact and additional information for this authorAll publicationsWorking Papers only

 
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