NBER Working Papers and Publications by George A. Akerlof

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Working Papers and Chapters and Reporter Articles

April 1994Looting: The Economic Underworld of Bankruptcy for Profit
with Paul M. Romer: r1869

Published: Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 2, pp. 1-60 and 70-74, (1993).

June 1990Waiting for Work
with Andrew K. Rose, Janet L. Yellen: w3385
This paper explains upward job mobility and observed patterns of unemployment by skill as an economy recovers from a recession. Skilled unemployment is due to rational waiting by workers looking for long-term jobs when there is a "lock-in" effect. Lock-in occurs if the conditions in the labor market when a worker first accepts a job have a persistent effect on wages. Using longitudinal data, we provide empirical evidence of the cyclical pattern of wages predicted by the theory and also of lock-in.

Published: George A. Akerlof & Andrew K. Rose & Janet L. Yellen, 1990. "Waiting for work," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Nov. citation courtesy of

March 1988Workers' Trust Funds and the Logic of Wage Profiles
with Lawrence F. Katz: w2548
This paper defines a concept, a worker's trust fund, which is useful in analyzing optimal age-earnings profiles. The trust fund represents what a worker loses if dismissed from a job for shirking. In considering whether to work or shirk, a worker weighs the potential loss due to forfeiture of the trust fund if caught shirking against the benefits from reduced effort. This concept is used to show that the implicit bonding in upward sloping age-earnings profiles is not a perfect substitute for an explicit upfront performance bond (or employment fee). It is also shown that the second-best optimal earnings profile in the absence of an upfront employment fee pays total compensation in excess of market clearing in a variety of stylized cases.

Published: The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. CIV, No. 418, pp. 525-536,(August 1989). citation courtesy of

September 1986Do Deferred Wages Dominate Involuntary Unemployment as a Worker Discipline Device?
with Lawrence F. Katz: w2025
In the most widely analyzed type of efficiency wage model of involuntary unemployment, firms pay wages in excess of market clearing to give workers an incentive not to shirk. Such payments in excess of market clearing and the resultant equilibrium unemployment act as a worker discipline device. This paper concerns what is usually considered the most important theoretical criticism of such models: the so-called bonding argument. The essence of the bonding critique is that contracts whereby workers pay a bond to the firm upon taking a job (or pay an employment fee to gain employment) can eliminate involuntary unemployment. Explicit upfront bonds are only quite rarely observed. A more subtle form of the bonding critique argues that implicit bonding through upward sloping wage profiles and oth...

Published: Advances in the Theory and Measurement of Unemployment, Weiss, Y. and G. Fishelson, eds., New York: MacMillan, 1990, pp. 172-203.

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