NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

NBER Publications by Anna J. Schwartz

Contact and additional information for this authorAll NBER papers and publicationsNBER Working Papers only

Books

A Retrospective on the Classical Gold Standard, 1821-1931
with Michael D. Bordo
Published in 1984 by University of Chicago Press
© 1984 by the National Bureau of Economic Research

The International Transmission of Inflation
with Michael R. Darby, James R. Lothian, Arthur E. Gandolfi, Alan C. Stockman
Published in 1983 by University of Chicago Press
© 1983 by the National Bureau of Economic Research

Monetary Trends in the United States and United Kingdom: Their Relation to Income, Prices, and Interest Rates, 1867-1975
with Milton Friedman
Published in 1982 by University of Chicago Press
© 1982 by the National Bureau of Economic Research

Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods
with Milton Friedman
Published in 1970 by NBER
in NBER Book Series Studies in Business Cycles

The Great Contraction, 1929-33
with Milton Friedman
Published in 1965 by Princeton University Press
in NBER Book Series Studies in Business Cycles

A Monetary History of the United States, 1867-1960
with Milton Friedman
Published in 1963 by Princeton University Press
in NBER Book Series Studies in Business Cycles

Currency Held by the Public, the Banks, and the Treasury, Monthly, December 1917-December 1944
with Elma Oliver
Published in 1947 by NBER

Working Papers and Chapters

April 2012Epilogue: Foreign-Exchange-Market Operations in the Twenty-First Century
with Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage: w17984
September 2011The Federal Reserve as an Informed Foreign Exchange Trader: 1973 - 1995
with Michael D. Bordo, Owen F. Humpage: w17425

Published: Michael D. Bordo & Owen F. Humpage & Anna J. Schwartz, 2012. "The Federal Reserve as an Informed Foreign Exchange Trader: 1973–1995," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 8(1), pages 127-160, March. citation courtesy of

April 2011U.S. Intervention During the Bretton Woods Era: 1962-1973
with Michael D. Bordo, Owen F. Humpage: w16946
December 2010U.S. Foreign-Exchange-Market Intervention and the Early Dollar Float: 1973 - 1981
with Michael D. Bordo, Owen F. Humpage: w16647
September 2010U.S. Foreign-Exchange-Market Intervention during the Volcker-Greenspan Era
with Michael D. Bordo, Owen F. Humpage: w16345
October 2007The Impact of Milton Friedman on Modern Monetary Economics: Setting the Record Straight on Paul Krugman's "Who Was Milton Friedman?"
with Edward Nelson: w13546

Published: Nelson, Edward & Schwartz, Anna J., 2008. "The impact of Milton Friedman on modern monetary economics: Setting the record straight on Paul Krugman's "Who was Milton Friedman?"," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(4), pages 835-856, May. citation courtesy of

November 2006The Historical Origins of U.S. Exchange Market Intervention Policy
with Michael D. Bordo, Owen Humpage: w12662

Published: Michael D. Bordo & Owen Humpage & Anna J. Schwartz, 2007. "The historical origins of US exchange market intervention policy," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(2), pages 109-132. citation courtesy of

October 2006David Laidler on Monetarism
with Michael Bordo: w12593

Published: Leeson, Robert (ed.) David Laidler’s Contribution to Macroeconomics. Palgrave McMillan, 2010.

May 2003IS-LM and Monetarism
with Michael D. Bordo: w9713

Published: Bordo, Michael D. and Anna J. Schwartz. "IS-LM And Monetarism," History of Political Economy, 2004, v36(4,Winter), 217-239. citation courtesy of

November 2002Asset Price Inflation and Monetary Policy
w9321

Published: Schwartz, Anna J. " Asset Price Inflation and Monetary Policy." Atlantic Economic Journal 31, 1 (March 2003) 1-14. citation courtesy of

January 2002Charles Goodhart's Contributions to the History of Monetary Institutions
with Michael D. Bordo: w8717

Published: Mizen, Paul (ed.) Essays in honour of Charles Goodhart. Volume 2. Monetary history, exchange rates and financial markets. Cheltenham, U.K. and Northampton, MA: Elgar, 2003.

January 2001From the Exchange Stabilization Fund to the International Monetary Fund
with Michael Bordo: w8100
June 2000The Rise and Fall of Foreign Exchange Market Intervention
w7751

Published: Anna J. Schwartz. "The Rise and Fall of Foreign Exchange Market Intervention as a Policy Tool." Journal of Financial Services Research, Volume 18, Numbers 2-3, 319-339 (2000)

May 2000Measuring Real Economic Effects of Bailouts: Historical Perspectives on How Countries in Financial Distress Have Fared With and Without Bailouts
with Michael D. Bordo: w7701

Published: Bordo, Michael D. & Schwartz, Anna J., 2000. "Measuring real economic effects of bailouts: historical perspectives on how countries in financial distress have fared with and without bailouts," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 81-167, December. citation courtesy of

May 1999Was Expansionary Monetary Policy Feasible During the Great Contraction? An Examination of the Gold Standard Constraint
with Michael D. Bordo, Ehsan U. Choudhri: w7125

Published: Bordo, Michael D. & Choudhri, Ehsan U. & Schwartz, Anna J., 2002. "Was Expansionary Monetary Policy Feasible during the Great Contraction? An Examination of the Gold Standard Constraint," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 1-28, January. citation courtesy of

December 1998Under What Circumstances, Past and Present, Have International Rescues of Countries in Financial Distress Been Successful?
with Michael D. Bordo: w6824

Published: Bordo, Michael D. and Anna J. Schwartz. "Under What Circumstances, Past And Present, Have International Rescues Of Countries In Financial Distress Been Successful?," Journal of International Money and Finance, 1999, v18(4,Aug), 683-708. citation courtesy of

September 1997Monetary Policy Regimes and Economic Performance: The Historical Record
with Michael D. Bordo: w6201

Published: Handbook of Macroeconomics, John Taylor and Michael Woodford (eds.), vol. 1 A, pp. 149-234, 1999.

August 1996From Obscurity to Notoriety: A Biography of the Exchange Stabilization Fund
w5699

Published: Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Vol. 29, no. 2 (May 1997): 135-153. citation courtesy of

Why Clashes Between Internal and External Stability Goals End in Currency Crises, 1797-1994
with Michael D. Bordo: w5710

Published: Open Economies Review, Vol. 7 pp. 437-468, December 1996

December 1995Real Versus Pseudo-International Systemic Risk: Some Lessons from History
with Michael D. Bordo, Bruce Mizrach: w5371

Published: Review of Pacific Basin Financial Markets and Policies, December 1996

September 1994The Specie Standard as a Contingent Rule: Some Evidence for Core and Peripheral Countries, 1880-1990
with Michael D. Bordo: w4860

Published: Historical Perspectives on the Gold Standard, Barry Eichengreen and Jorge de Macedo, eds. Routledge, 1996. Currency Convertibility: The Gold Standard and Beyond, J. Braga de Macedo, B. Eichengreen, J. Reis, eds., pp. 11-83 (New York: Routledge, 1996).

October 1993Could Stable Money Have Averted The Great Contraction?
with Michael D. Bordo, Ehsan U. Choudhri: w4481

Published: Economic Inquiry, vol. XXXIII, no. 3, pp. 484-505, (July 1995). citation courtesy of

January 1992Money versus Credit Rationing: Evidence for the National Banking Era, 1880-1914
with Michael D. Bordo, Peter Rappoport
in Strategic Factors in Nineteenth Century American Economic History: A Volume to Honor Robert W. Fogel, Claudia Goldin and Hugh Rockoff, editors
April 1991Money versus Credit Rationing: Evidence for the National Banking Era, 1880-1914
with Michael D. Bordo, Peter Rappoport: w3689

Published:

December 1990What has Foreign Market Intervention Since the Plaza Agreement Accomplished?
with Michael D. Bordo: w3562

Published: Open Economies Review, Vol. 2, pp. 39-64, (1991).

1989Money Stock Targeting, Base Drift and Price-Level Predictability: Lessons From the U.K. Experience
with Michael D. Bordo, Ehsan U. Choudhri: w2825

Published: Journal of Monetary Economics, Vol. 25, No. 21, pp. 253-272, (March 1990). citation courtesy of

August 1987Money Growth Variability and Money Supply Interdependence Under InterestRate Control: Some Evidence For Canada
with Michael D. Bordo, Ehsan U. Choudhri: w1480

Published: Bordo, Michael, Ehsan U. Choudhri and Anna J. Schwartz. "The Behavior of Money Stock Under Interest Rate Control: Some Evidence for Canada," Journal of Money, Credit , and Banking, Vol. 19, May 1987, pp. 181-197.

The ECU - An Imaginary or Embryonic Form of Money: What Can We Learn from History?
with Michael D. Bordo: w2345

Published: From The ECU and European Monetary Integration, edited by Paul DeGrauwe and Theo Peeters, pp. 1-21. London: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1989.

1987How Feasible Is a Flexible Monetary Policy?
with Phillip Cagan
in Money in Historical Perspective, Anna J. Schwartz
Has the Growth of Money Substitutes Hindered Monetary Policy?
with Phillip Cagan
in Money in Historical Perspective, Anna J. Schwartz
Money and Business Cycles
with Milton Friedman
in Money in Historical Perspective, Anna J. Schwartz
Has Government Any Role in Money?
with Milton Friedman
in Money in Historical Perspective, Anna J. Schwartz
Clark Warburton: Pioneer Monetarist
with Michael D. Bordo
in Money in Historical Perspective, Anna J. Schwartz
The Importance of Stable Money: Theory and Evidence
with Michael D. Bordo
in Money in Historical Perspective, Anna J. Schwartz
Front matter, "Money in Historical Perspective"
in Money in Historical Perspective, Anna J. Schwartz
1984Front matter, preface, table of contents
with Michael D. Bordo
in A Retrospective on the Classical Gold Standard, 1821-1931, Michael D. Bordo and Anna J. Schwartz, editors
Introduction to "A Retrospective on the Classical Gold Standard, 1821-1931"
in A Retrospective on the Classical Gold Standard, 1821-1931, Michael D. Bordo and Anna J. Schwartz, editors
List of Contributors, Indexes
with Michael D. Bordo
in A Retrospective on the Classical Gold Standard, 1821-1931, Michael D. Bordo and Anna J. Schwartz, editors
1983The Postwar Institutional Evolution of the International Monetary System
in The International Transmission of Inflation, Michael R. Darby, James R. Lothian and Arthur E. Gandolfi, Anna J. Schwartz, Alan C. Stockman
Front matter, table of contents
with Michael R. Darby, James R. Lothian, Arthur E. Gandolfi, Alan C. Stockman
in The International Transmission of Inflation, Michael R. Darby, James R. Lothian and Arthur E. Gandolfi, Anna J. Schwartz, Alan C. Stockman
II. The Mark III International Transmission Model
with Michael R. Darby, James R. Lothian, Arthur E. Gandolfi, Alan C. Stockman
in The International Transmission of Inflation, Michael R. Darby, James R. Lothian and Arthur E. Gandolfi, Anna J. Schwartz, Alan C. Stockman
III. Capital Flows, Sterilization, Monetary Policy, and Exchange Intervention
with Michael R. Darby, James R. Lothian, Arthur E. Gandolfi, Alan C. Stockman
in The International Transmission of Inflation, Michael R. Darby, James R. Lothian and Arthur E. Gandolfi, Anna J. Schwartz, Alan C. Stockman
IV. International Price Movements
with Michael R. Darby, James R. Lothian, Arthur E. Gandolfi, Alan C. Stockman
in The International Transmission of Inflation, Michael R. Darby, James R. Lothian and Arthur E. Gandolfi, Anna J. Schwartz, Alan C. Stockman
Indexes
with Michael R. Darby, James R. Lothian, Arthur E. Gandolfi, Alan C. Stockman
in The International Transmission of Inflation, Michael R. Darby, James R. Lothian and Arthur E. Gandolfi, Anna J. Schwartz, Alan C. Stockman
1982Front matter, tables of content, preface
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Trends in the United States and United Kingdom: Their Relation to Income, Prices, and Interest Rates, 1867-1975, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
Principal Empirical Findings
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Trends in the United States and United Kingdom: Their Relation to Income, Prices, and Interest Rates, 1867-1975, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
Scope of the Study
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Trends in the United States and United Kingdom: Their Relation to Income, Prices, and Interest Rates, 1867-1975, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
The General Theoretical Framework
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Trends in the United States and United Kingdom: Their Relation to Income, Prices, and Interest Rates, 1867-1975, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
The General Statistical Framework
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Trends in the United States and United Kingdom: Their Relation to Income, Prices, and Interest Rates, 1867-1975, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
The Basic Data
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Trends in the United States and United Kingdom: Their Relation to Income, Prices, and Interest Rates, 1867-1975, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
Movements of Money, Income, and Prices
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Trends in the United States and United Kingdom: Their Relation to Income, Prices, and Interest Rates, 1867-1975, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
Velocity and the Demand for Money
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Trends in the United States and United Kingdom: Their Relation to Income, Prices, and Interest Rates, 1867-1975, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
Velocity and the Interrelations between the United States and the United Kingdom
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Trends in the United States and United Kingdom: Their Relation to Income, Prices, and Interest Rates, 1867-1975, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
Monetary Influences on Nominal Income
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Trends in the United States and United Kingdom: Their Relation to Income, Prices, and Interest Rates, 1867-1975, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
Division of Change in Income between Prices and Output
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Trends in the United States and United Kingdom: Their Relation to Income, Prices, and Interest Rates, 1867-1975, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
Money and Interest Rates
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Trends in the United States and United Kingdom: Their Relation to Income, Prices, and Interest Rates, 1867-1975, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
Long Swings in Growth Rates
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Trends in the United States and United Kingdom: Their Relation to Income, Prices, and Interest Rates, 1867-1975, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
The Role of Money
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Trends in the United States and United Kingdom: Their Relation to Income, Prices, and Interest Rates, 1867-1975, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
References
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Trends in the United States and United Kingdom: Their Relation to Income, Prices, and Interest Rates, 1867-1975, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
Indexes
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Trends in the United States and United Kingdom: Their Relation to Income, Prices, and Interest Rates, 1867-1975, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
1980Front matter, table of contents
with Milton Friedman
in From New Deal Banking Reform to World War II Inflation, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwaartz
New Deal Changes in the Banking Structure and Monetary Standard
with Milton Friedman
in From New Deal Banking Reform to World War II Inflation, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwaartz
Cyclical Changes, 1933-41
with Milton Friedman
in From New Deal Banking Reform to World War II Inflation, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwaartz
World War II Inflation, September 1939 ─ August 1948
with Milton Friedman
in From New Deal Banking Reform to World War II Inflation, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwaartz
April 1976From Gibson to Fisher
with Milton Friedman
in Explorations in Economic Research, Volume 3, number 2 (Conference on International Trade, Finance, and Development of Pacific Basin Countries, December 6-7, 1974, NBER
1975Money and Business Cycles
with Milton Friedman
in The State Of Monetary Economics, National Bureau Committee for Economic Research
1970Front matter, tables of content, preface
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz
Introduction to "Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods"
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz
Part One: Definition of Money, Introduction
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz
Prior Usage
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz
A Priori Approaches
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz
Basis for Our Choice of Definition
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz
Conclusion on Definition
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz
Part Two: Earlier Estimates, Introduction
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz
Sources and Accuracy of Basic Data
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz
Estimates for the Period Before 1867
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz
Estimates for the Period Since 1867
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz
Comparison of Earlier Estimates With Our Own
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz
Part Three: Derivation of Our Estimates, Introduction
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz
General Features of Our Estimates
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz
Annual, Semiannual, and Quarterly Estimates, 1867-1907
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz
Currency Held by the Public: Call Date and Monthly Estimates
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz
Deposits and Commercial Banks: Call Dates
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz
Deposits and Commercial Banks: Monthly Estimates
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz
Deposits at Mutual Savings Banks: Call Date and Monthly Estimates
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz
Deposits with the Postal Savings System
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz
United States Government Balances
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz
Indexes
with Milton Friedman
in Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods, Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz
1965Front matter, preface, table of contents
with Milton Friedman
in The Great Contraction, 1929-33, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
Introduction to "The Great Contraction, 1929-33"
with Milton Friedman
in The Great Contraction, 1929-33, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
The Course of Money, Income, Prices, Velocity, and Interest Rates
with Milton Friedman
in The Great Contraction, 1929-33, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
Factors Accounting for Changes in the Stock of Money
with Milton Friedman
in The Great Contraction, 1929-33, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
Bank Failures
with Milton Friedman
in The Great Contraction, 1929-33, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
International Character of the Contraction
with Milton Friedman
in The Great Contraction, 1929-33, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
Development of Monetary Policy
with Milton Friedman
in The Great Contraction, 1929-33, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
Alternative Policies
with Milton Friedman
in The Great Contraction, 1929-33, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
Why Was Monetary Policy So Inept?
with Milton Friedman
in The Great Contraction, 1929-33, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
Glossary, Sources, Indexes
with Milton Friedman
in The Great Contraction, 1929-33, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz
Money and Business Cycles
with Milton Friedman
in The State of Monetary Economics, Universities-National Bureau
1960Gross Dividend and Interest Payments by Corporations at Selected Dates in the 19th Century
in Trends in the American Economy in the Nineteenth Century, The Conference on Research in Income and Wealth
1947Front matter, tables of content
with Elma Oliver
in Currency Held by the Public, the Banks, and the Treasury, Monthly, December 1917-December 1944, Anna Jacobson Schwartz and Elma Oliver
Definitions
with Elma Oliver
in Currency Held by the Public, the Banks, and the Treasury, Monthly, December 1917-December 1944, Anna Jacobson Schwartz and Elma Oliver
Derivation of the Series
with Elma Oliver
in Currency Held by the Public, the Banks, and the Treasury, Monthly, December 1917-December 1944, Anna Jacobson Schwartz and Elma Oliver
Significance of Fluctuations in Currency Holdings
with Elma Oliver
in Currency Held by the Public, the Banks, and the Treasury, Monthly, December 1917-December 1944, Anna Jacobson Schwartz and Elma Oliver
Appendices to "Currency Held by the Public, the Banks, and the Treasury, Monthly, December 1917-December 1944"
with Elma Oliver
in Currency Held by the Public, the Banks, and the Treasury, Monthly, December 1917-December 1944, Anna Jacobson Schwartz and Elma Oliver
January PublicationStrained Relations: U.S. Monetary Policy and Foreign-Exchange Operations in the Twentieth Century
with Michael D. Bordo, Owen F. Humpage
in Strained Relations: U.S. Monetary Policy and Foreign-Exchange Operations in the Twentieth Century, Michael D. Bordo, Owen F. Humpage, and Anna J. Schwartz

Contact and additional information for this authorAll NBER papers and publicationsNBER Working Papers only

 
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