NBER Working Papers have not undergone the review accorded official NBER publications; in particular, they have not been submitted for approval by the Board of directors. They are intended to make results of NBER research available to other economists in preliminary form to encourage discussion and suggestions for revision before publication.
The NBER Web site offers full-text downloads of all NBER Working papers in full text format. Most papers are free to most users, but subscriptions are required for most papers issued in the last 18 months to website visitors in high income counties.
Authorization problems should be presented to Tim Page. More information about
- Institutional Subscribers
- Residents of Low income countries
- US Government
- Journalists and
- Single Copy Sales
is available on this website. If authorization is incorrectly denied, please visit the test document and send Daniel Feenberg a note including the time (in New York) and date when that was done, in addition to the number of the paper actually sought.
Production problems including unreadable text or equations, missing pages, missing characters, or missing figures should be reported to Laura Bethard. Papers should be viewable in any PDF reader supporting Adobe version 5+ or PDF/A.
The NBER does not hold the copyright for our Working Paper series. The copyright remains with the author(s) of the paper. Contact information for authors may be obtained from the paper's abstract page.
Information for Libraries and Robots
Details of our support for mechanized bibliographic systems, and other information of interest to library subscribers is here.