This research was supported by the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health under award number R01AG050701; the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1730546; the Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL) North America U.S. Health Care Delivery Initiative; Evidence for Action (E4A), a program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; and the W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. The content is solely the responsibility of the investigators and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health, any of our funders, or the University of Illinois.


This study could not have been possible without the additional support from the following collaborators: Illinois Human Resources; National Bureau of Economic Research; Coventry Health Care, an Aetna Company; and Presence Health.