Curriculum Vitae

                                                                  September 2009



Columbia University                            

Graduate School of Business                

504 Uris Hall                                       

3022 Broadway                        

New York, NY 10027               

Phone: (212) 854-4408

Fax: (212) 854-9895

Home office phone: (914) 882-7143





Courtney C. Brown Professor of Business, Columbia University Graduate School of Business


Visiting Professor, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia


Research Associate, National Bureau of Economic Research

            Productivity and Health Care Programs


Research Fellow, CESifo (Center for Economic Studies/Ifo Institute for Economic Research)


Associate Editor, Management Science


Associate Editor, Economics


Editorial Board member, Journal of Evolutionary Economics


Editorial Board member, Defence and Peace Economics


Member, Conference on Research in Income and Wealth


Affiliate, LECG, LLC (economic consulting services firm)


Advisory Board, Center for Medical Progress, Manhattan Institute for Policy Research




Winner of the 2003 Milken Institute Award for Distinguished Economic Research for the paper, Pharmaceutical Knowledge-Capital Accumulation and Longevity.


Winner of the 1998 Schumpeter Prize for the paper, Pharmaceutical Innovation as a Process of

Creative Destruction.


Margaret Chandler Memorial Award for Commitment to Excellence ("Best Teacher Award") by the Columbia Business School Executive MBA Class of 1994-II.




Ph.D. Economics, University of Pennsylvania, 1982

     Dissertation: Training, Tenure, and Productivity

     Graduate Honors received: University Fellow, Teaching Fellow, Graduate Group Fellow


M.A. Economics, University of Pennsylvania, 1976


B.A. with Honors, History, University of Chicago, 1973

  National Merit Scholar Finalist, 1969

  attended University of Warwick (England), Fall 1972




Member, Advisory Committee, Division of Information Management, New York Academy of Medicine


Visiting Scholar, Federal Trade Commission, Fall 1997


Visiting Scholar, Center for Economic Studies, University of Munich, July 1997


Columbia University Graduate School of Business

            Head of Economics Group, 1994-96

            Professor, 1992-95

            Associate Professor, 1986-92

            Assistant Professor, 1983-86


Visiting Scholar, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin, July 1995


Visiting Scholar, Kiel (Germany) Institute of World Economics, August 1993


National Bureau of Economic Research

            Faculty Research Fellow, 1982-86

            Research Economist, 1980-82


Jerome Levy Economics Institute at Bard College

            Research Fellow, 1989-90


American Statistical Association/National Science Foundation/Census Bureau  

            Research Fellow, 1986-87


Columbia University, Center for Education and the American Economy

            Senior Research Associate, 1985-87


University of Adelaide (Australia)

            Visiting Lecturer, 1982


Harvard University

            Instructor, 1982


U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Office of Economic Growth

            Dissertation Fellow, 1979-80


Brookings Institution

            Research Fellow in Economics, 1978-79


University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School

            Instructor, 1978


U.S. Congressional Budget Office, Budget Analysis Division

            Intern, 1977


U.S. Department of Justice, Antitrust Division

            Intern, 1976


Henry Dreyfuss Associates (Industrial Designers), Production Manager, 1973-75






Corporate Takeovers and Productivity (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1992).




 “The effect of drug vintage on survival: micro evidence from Puerto Rico’s Medicaid program,”, Advances in Health Economics Health Services Research 22, forthcoming


 “The impact of drug vintage on patient survival: a patient-level analysis using Quebec’s provincial health plan data,” with Paul Grootendorst, Marc Van Audenrode, Dominick Latremouille-Viau, and Patrick Lefebvre, Value in Health, forthcoming.


“International differences in cancer survival rates: the role of new drug launches,” International Journal of Healthcare Technology and Management 10 (3), 138-55.  


“Does Misery Love Company? Evidence from pharmaceutical markets before and after the Orphan Drug Act,” with Joel Waldfogel, Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review, forthcoming.


 The effect of new cancer drug approvals on the life expectancy of American cancer patients, 1978-2004,” Economics of Innovation and New Technology 18 (5), 407-28.


“Home, or nursing home?  The effect of medical innovation on the demand for long-term care,” in J. Costa i Font, A. McGuire and C. Courbage (eds), The Economics of New Health Technologies: Incentives, Organisation and Financing, Oxford University Press.

 “Have newer cardiovascular drugs reduced hospitalization?  Evidence from longitudinal country-level data on 20 OECD countries, 1995-2003,” Health Economics,


“Pharmaceutical innovation and the longevity of Australians: a first look,” with Gautier Duflos, Advances in Health Economics and Health Services Research 19, 2008, pp 95-117.


"Pharmaceutical Innovation and U.S. Cancer Survival, 1992-2003: Evidence from Linked SEER-MEDSTAT Data," Forum for Health Economics & Policy: Vol. 10: Iss. 1 (Frontiers in Health Policy Research), Article 1.


“The Effect Of Education On Medical Technology Adoption: Are The More Educated More Likely To Use New Drugs?,” with Adriana Lleras-Muney, Annales d’Economie et de Statistique, forthcoming.


 The impact of Medicare Part D on prescription drug use by the elderly: evidence from a large retail pharmacy chain,” with Shawn Sun, Health Affairs 26(6), November/December 2007, 1735-44.


“Importation and innovation,” Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 2007, Vol. 16(6), September, pp. 403–417


“Benefits and Costs of Newer Drugs: An Update,” Managerial and Decision Economics 28: 485–490 (2007).


 “Pharmaceutical-embodied technical progress, longevity, and quality of life: drugs as ‘equipment for your health,’” with Suchin Virabhak, Managerial and Decision Economics 28: 371–392 (2007)


 “The Effect of Drug Vintage on Mortality: Economic Effect of New Drugs,” with Kee Taig Jung and Jeong Yoon Kim, Korean Journal of Health Policy and Administration 16(4), December 2006, 147-68.


“Effects of new drugs on overall health spending: Frank Lichtenberg responds,” Health Affairs 26(3), May-June, 887-90.


“The effect of using newer drugs on admissions of elderly Americans to hospitals and nursing homes: state-level evidence from 1997-2003,” Pharmacoeconomics 24 Suppl 3, 2006, 5-25.


 “The Impact of New Drugs on U.S. Longevity and Medical Expenditure, 1990-2003,”American Economic Review 97 (2), May 2007, 438-443.


Ensuring the future supply of vaccines: Is a National Vaccine Authority the answer?,” in Pharmaceutical Innovation: Incentives, Competition, and Cost-Benefit Analysis in International Perspective , ed. by Chee-Ruey Hsieh and Frank Sloan (Cambridge University Press, 2007), 127-52.


The impact of increased utilization of HIV drugs on longevity and medical expenditure: an assessment based on aggregate U.S. time-series data,” Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research, Volume 6, Number 4, August 2006, 425-436.


“Did CMS’ Functional Equivalence Decision Result in Equitable Payments?,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Finance, Economics & Policy 15(1), 2006, 7-20.


 “Has using newer drugs reduced admissions to hospitals and nursing homes?,” Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics 142, 2006, pp. 69-75.


“The Benefits to Society of New Drugs: A Survey of the Econometric Evidence,” in Engaging the New World: Responses to the Knowledge Economy, edited by Bhajan S. Grewal and Margarita Kumnick, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 2006.


“Pharmaceutical Innovation as a Process of Creative Destruction,” in Knowledge Accumulation and Industry Evolution: The Case of Pharma-Biotech, ed. by Mariana Mazzucato and Giovanni Dosi (Cambridge University Press, 2006), pp. 21-72.


"Pharmaceutical innovation and the burden of disease in developing and developed countries," Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30(6), December 2005.


“Pharmaceutical Knowledge-Capital Accumulation and Longevity,” in Measuring Capital in the New Economy, ed. by Carol Corrado, John Haltiwanger, and Dan Sichel, pp. 237-269 (University of Chicago Press, 2005).


"Availability of new drugs and Americans' ability to work," Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 47 (4), April 2005, 373-380.


“The Effect of Access Restrictions on the Vintage of Drugs Used by Medicaid Enrollees,” American Journal of Managed Care 11, Special Issue, 2005, SP7-SP13.


"The impact of new drug launches on longevity: evidence from longitudinal disease-level data from 52 countries, 1982-2001," International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics 5, 2005, pp. 47-73.


 “Sources of U.S. Longevity Increase, 1960-2001,” Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance 44(3), pp. 369-389 (July 2004).


 “Public policy and innovation in the U.S. pharmaceutical industry,” in Public Policy and the Economics of Entrepreneurship, ed. by Douglas Holtz-Eakin and Harvey S. Rosen (MIT Press, 2004), pp. 83-113.


“The Effect of New Drugs on HIV Mortality in the U.S., 1987-1998,” Economics and Human Biology 1 (2003) 259-266.


“Pharmaceutical Innovation, Mortality Reduction, and Economic Growth,” in Measuring the Gains from Medical Research: An Economic Approach, ed. by Kevin M. Murphy and Robert H. Topel (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), pp. 74-109.


“The Dual Effects of Intellectual Property Regulations: Within- and Between-Patent Competition in The US Pharmaceuticals Industry,” with Tomas Philipson, Journal of Law & Economics 45, pp. 643-672, 2002.


“The Effects of Medicare on Health Care Utilization and Outcomes,” Frontiers in Health Policy Research, Vol. 5, ed. by Alan Garber (MIT Press, 2002).


“Are the Benefits of Newer Drugs Worth Their Cost? Evidence from the 1996 MEPS,” Health Affairs 20(5), September/October 2001, 241-51.


“Does foreign direct investment transfer technology across borders?,” with Bruno van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, The Review of Economics and Statistics, Aug 2001; Vol. 83, Iss. 3; pp. 490-7.


“The Allocation of Publicly Funded Biomedical Research,” in Medical Care Output and Productivity, Studies in Income and Wealth Volume 62, ed. by Ernst Berndt and David Cutler (University of Chicago Press, 2001), 565-89.


“The Effect of Pharmaceutical Utilisation and Innovation on Hospitalisation and Mortality,” in Productivity, Technology, and Economic Growth, ed. by B. van Ark, S. K. Kuipers and G. Kuper (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000).


"The European Strategic Programme for Research in Information Technologies (ESPRIT): An Ex-Post Analysis," in The Political Economy of Industrial Policy, ed. by D. Neven and Lars-Hendrik Roller (Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin and Edition Sigma).


“Managerial Ownership and Firm Performance: A Re-examination Using Productivity Measurement,” with Darius Palia, Journal of Corporate Finance: Contracting, Governance and Organization 5(4), December 1999, 323-39.


“Information Technology and Its Impact on Productivity: Firm-level Evidence from Government and Private Data Sources, 1977-1993,” with Bill Lehr, Canadian Journal of Economics 32(2), April 1999, 335-62.


"Computer Use and Productivity Growth in Federal Government Agencies, 1987-92," with Bill Lehr, Journal of Industrial Economics 46(2), June 1998, 257-79.


“International R&D Spillovers: A Comment,” with Bruno van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, European Economic Review 42(8), September 1998, 1483-91.


“The Impact and Organization of Publicly-Funded Research and Development in the European Community,” with Maryann Feldman, Annales d’Economie et Statistique 0(49-50), (in English), Jan.-June 1998, 199-222.


“Technology Investment is Driving Economic Growth,” in The Rising Tide, ed. by Jerry Jasinowski (New York: Wiley, 1998), 163-9.


“Commentary: Shoring up Government Support,” in The Future of Biomedical Research, ed. by Claude Barfield and Bruce Smith (Washington: American Enterprise Institute and Brookings Institution, 1997), 67-72.


"Do (More and Better) Drugs Keep People Out of Hospitals?," American Economic Review 86, May, 1996, 384-8.

"Labour Market Institutions, Liquidity Constraints, and Macroeconomic Stability," Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 28 (1995), 145-54.


"The Output Contributions of Computer Equipment and Personnel: A Firm-Level Analysis," Economics of Innovation and New Technology 3 (1995), 201-17.


“The Economics of Defense R&D," in The Handbook of Defense Economics, Volume 1, ed. by K. Hartley and T. Sandler. Handbooks in Economics, vol. 12. (Amsterdam, New York and Oxford: Elsevier, 1995), 431-57.


"Ownership Structure and Corporate Performance in Japan," with George Pushner, Japan and the World Economy 6 (1994), 239-61.

"Testing the Convergence Hypothesis," Review of Economics and Statistics 76(3), August 1994, 576-9.


"An Industry-Level Analysis of Import Relief Petitions Filed by U.S. Manufacturers, 1958-1985," with Hong Tan, in Troubled Industries in the United States and Japan, ed. by Hong Tan and Haruo Shimada (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994), 161-88.


"Have International Differences in Educational Attainment Levels Narrowed?," in Convergence of Productivity: Cross-National Studies and Historical Evidence, ed. by W. Baumol, R. Nelson, and E. Wolff (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), 225-42.


"R&D Investment and International Productivity Differences," in Economic Growth in the World Economy, ed. by Horst Siebert (Tubingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1993), 89-110.


"Industrial De-Diversification and Its Consequences for Productivity," Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 18 (1992), 427-38.


"A Perspective on Accounting for Defense Contracts," The Accounting Review 67 (4), 742-53, October 1992.


"Asset Stripping," in The New Palgrave Dictionary of Money and Finance, J. Eatwell, M. Milgate, and P. Newman, eds. (London: Macmillan, 1992).


"The Managerial Response to Regulation of Financial Reporting for Segments of a Business Enterprise," Journal of Regulatory Economics 3 (1991), 241-9.


"The Age of Technology and Its Impact on Employee Wages," with Ann Bartel, Economics of Innovation and New Technology 1 (1991), 215-31.


"The Impact of R&D Investment on Productivity: New Evidence Using Linked R&D-LRD Data," with Donald Siegel, Economic Inquiry 29 (1991), April, 203-28.


"The Effect of Leveraged Buyouts on Productivity and Related Aspects of Firm Behavior," with Donald Siegel, Journal of Financial Economics 26 (1990), 165-94.


"The Effect of Ownership Changes on the Employment and Wages of Central-Office and Other Personnel," with Donald Siegel, Journal of Law and Economics 33 (1990), October, 383-408.


"U.S. Government Subsidies to Private Military R&D: The Defense Department's Independent R&D Policy," Defense Economics 1 (1990),  149-58.


"Aggregation of Variables in Least-Squares Regression," American Statistician 44 (1990), 169-71.


"Issues in Measuring Industrial R&D," Research Policy 19 (1990), 157-63.


"How Elastic is the Government's Demand for Weapons?," Journal of Public Economics 40 (1989), 57-78.


"The Effect of Control Changes on the Productivity of U.S. Manufacturing Plants," with Donald Siegel, Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, August 1989, 60-7.


"Contributions to Federal Election Campaigns by Government Contractors," Journal of Industrial Economics 38, September 1989, 31-48.


"IR&D Project Data and Theories of R&D Investment," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control 13, 1989, 271-82.


"Errors of Measurement in Output Deflators," with Zvi Griliches, Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 7, Jan. 1989, 1-9.


"The Impact of the Strategic Defense Initiative on U.S. Civilian R&D Investment and International Competitiveness," Social Studies of Science 19(2), 1989; also published (in French) in J.J. Salomon (ed.), Science, Guerre et Paix (Paris: Economica, 1989), 137-56.


"Managerial Economics," in The Portable MBA, Mary Anne Devanna and Eliza G.C. Collins, eds. (New York: Wiley, 1989).


"Estimation of the Internal Adjustment Costs Model Using Longitudinal Establishment Data," Review of Economics and Statistics 70(3), August 1988, 421-30.


"The Private R&D Investment Response to Federal Design and Technical Competitions," American Economic Review 78(3), June 1988, 550-9.


"Productivity Improvements from Changes in Ownership," Mergers and Acquisitions 23(2), Sept./Oct. 1988, 48-50.


"Assessing the Impact of Federal Industrial R&D Expenditure on Private R&D Activity in the U.S.," in The Relation Between Defence and Civil Technologies, Philip Gummett and Judith Reppy, eds. (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988), 68-87.


"Productivity and Changes in Ownership of Manufacturing Plants," with Donald Siegel, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 1987:3, 643-73.


"The Effect of Government Funding on Private Industrial Research and Development: A Re-Assessment," Journal of Industrial Economics 36(1), Sept. 1987.


"Changing Market Opportunities and the Structure of R&D Investment: The Case of Energy," Energy Economics 9(3), July 1987, 154-8.


"The Comparative Advantage of Educated Workers in Implementing New Technology," with Ann Bartel, Review of Economics and Statistics 69(1), Feb. 1987, 1-11.


"The Skill Distribution and Competitive Trade Advantage of High-Technology Industries," with Ann Bartel, in Advances in Industrial and Labor Relations, Vol. 4, D. Lewin, D. Lipsky, and D. Sockell, eds. (JAI Press, 1987).


"The Duration and Intensity of Investment in Independent Research and Development Projects," Journal of Economic and Social Measurement 14, 1986, 207-18.


"Energy Prices and Induced Innovation," Research Policy 15, 1986, 67-75.


"Interindustry Technology Flows and Productivity Growth: A Re-Examination," with Zvi Griliches, Review of Economics and Statistics 66(2), May 1984.


"The Relationship Between Federal Contract R&D and Company R&D," American Economic Association Papers and Proceedings 74(2), May 1984.


"R&D and Productivity at the Industry Level: Is There Still a Relationship?," with Zvi Griliches, in R&D, Patents, and Productivity, Zvi Griliches, ed. (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1984), pp. 465-496.


Other Publications


“Commentary on ‘Methuselah's Medicine: Pharmaceutical Innovation and Mortality in the United States, 1960 to 2000’,” Social Science and Medicine, forthcoming.


 “Letter to the Editor,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, forthcoming.


 “Look Past Price for Health Care Value,” Investor’s Business Daily, November 12, 2008,


Comment on “M&As in the USA: Lessons from the last 100 years,” by John Matsusaka, in Institutional and Policy Reforms to Enhance Corporate Efficiency in Korea, ed. by Lee-Jay Cho, Somi Seong, and Sang-Hyop Lee (Seoul: Korea Development Institute, 2007), pp. 231-235.

“Yes, New Drugs Save Lives,” Washington Post, July 11, 2007; A15.


 “Clinical Laboratory Innovation Means Better Health, Longer Lives,” Laboratory Medicine 36 (8), p. 452+, August 2005.


“Cover These Treatments ,” Washington Post (op-ed article), August 20, 2004, page A19 (also appeared in Houston Chronicle).

“Longer Living Through Chemistry,” The Milken Institute Review 6 (1), First Quarter 2004, 16-26.


“The Value of New Drugs,” The Milken Institute Review 6 (1), Fourth Quarter 2003, 17-25.


 “The Economic and Human Impact of New Drugs,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 64, Supplement 17, 2003, 15-18.


“The Benefits to Society of New Drugs: A Survey of the Econometric Evidence,” in Science & Cents: Exploring the Economics of Biotechnology, ed. By John Duca and Mine Yucel (Dallas: Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, 2003), 43-59.


“Probing the Link Between Gross Profitability and R&D Spending,” Health Affairs 20(5), September/October 2001, 221-2.


Comment on Papers by Frank and Salkever and by Skinner and Wennberg, in The Changing Hospital Industry: Comparing Not-for-Profit and For-Profit Institutions, edited by David M. Cutler, The University of Chicago Press, 2000


Comment on Paper by Barro and Cutler, in Mergers and Productivity, edited by Steven N. Kaplan, The University of Chicago Press, 2000


Comment on Paper by McGuckin, Nguyen, and Reznek, in Labor Statistics Measurement Issues edited by John Haltiwanger, Marilyn E. Manser, and Robert Topel, The University of Chicago Press, 1998.


 “Do (more and better) medicines keep people out of hospitals?” (Pfizer Forum), The Economist, October 26, 1996, p. 63.


Review of The Performance of Companies, by Stephen Nickell (Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell, 1995), in The Journal of Economics.


Comment on “Efficiency in manufacturing and the need for global competition,” by Martin Baily and Neil Gersbach, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: Microeconomics 1995.


"Rejoinder to Comment by Maarten Vendrik," Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 28, Dec. 1995.  p. 455.


Comment on " Productivity levels in Germany, Japan, and the United States: Differences and causes," by Bart van Ark and Dirk Pilat, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: Microeconomics 1993.


"Another Way to Measure IT's Productivity Contribution," The Brookings Review 12, Fall 1994, 2.

Review of International High-Technology Competition, by F. M. Scherer, in The Journal of Economic Literature XXXI (4), Dec. 1993, 2015-7.


Comment on "Decade of Debt: Lessons from LBOs in the 1980s," by William Long and David Ravenscraft, in The Deal Decade: What Takeovers and Leveraged Buyouts Mean for Corporate Governance, edited by Margaret Blair (Washington: Brookings, 1993), 230-234.


"In a Downturn, Cut Profits Before Jobs" New York Times (Sunday Business Section), Feb. 16, 1992, Section 3, p. 13.


"Want More Productivity? Kill That Conglomerate," Wall Street Journal (editorial page article), Jan. 16, 1990.


"The Issues in Restructuring," Institutional Investor, June 1989.


"In Takeover Wars, Everyone Wins,"  New York Times (Business Forum article), June 18, 1989.

"Takeovers Slash Corporate Overhead," Wall Street Journal (editorial page article), Feb. 7, 1989.


"What Makes Plant Productivity Grow?," Wall Street Journal (editorial page article), Dec. 24, 1987; also published (in Italian) in Il Sole 24 Ore (Milan), Jan. 20, 1988.


Review of The Burden of Government, by Edwin S. Mills (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1986) in Journal of Comparative Economics 12(2), June 1988, 304-5.


"Military R&D Depletes Economic Might," Wall Street Journal (editorial page article), Aug. 21, 1986; reprinted in Impact, newsletter of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers 11(1), May 1987.




Testified before the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology in hearings on "Corporate Restructuring and Its Effects on R&D," July 13, 1989.




American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business

Merck and Co.

American Enterprise Institute

National Institute of Education

American Statistical Association

National Institutes of Health

Federal Trade Commission

National Pharmaceutical Council

French-American Foundation

National Science Foundation

Fulbright Commission

Pfizer, Inc.

German Academic Exchange Service

RAND Corporation

German Marshall Fund of the U.S.

Research Triangle Institute

Jerome Levy Economics Institute

Securities Industry Association

MacArthur Foundation

Alfred P. Sloan Foundation


U.S. Bureau of the Census



Reviewer for:


Administrative Science Quarterly         

Journal of Industrial Economics           

American Economic Review       

Journal of Labor Economics       

Commonwealth Fund

Journal of Peace Research          


Journal of Political Economy    

Economic Letters         

Journal of Policy Analysis and Management   


Journal of Productivity Analysis

Economics of Innovation and New Technology

Journal of Public Economics

European Economic Review                 

Journal of the American Medical Association

Financial Management

Medical Care

Health Affairs

MIT Press   

Health Economics

National Science Foundation    

Industrial Relations      

Oxford University Press

International Journal of Epidemiology

Population Studies

International Journal of Industrial Organization

Prentice Hall    

Journal of Comparative Economics       

Princeton University Press       

Journal of Development Economics      

Quarterly Journal of Economics           

Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization           

Rand Journal of Economics      

Journal of Econometrics           

Research Policy  

Journal of Economic Literature

Review of Income and Wealth  

Journal of Health Economics    


Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law        

University of Chicago Press



                                                                   Consultant to:


Amer. Fed. of State, County, and Municipal Employees

New York City Water Board

American Hospital Association

New York State Dept. of Econ. Devel.

American Society for Clinical Oncology


Barr Laboratories

Pennie and Edmonds

Community Preservation Corporation

RAND Corporation

Consortium on Productivity in the Schools

Research Triangle Institute

Economic Policy Institute/Union of Concerned Scientists

Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher, & Flom

Gellman Research Associates

Touche, Ross, and Co.

Institute of Medicine

U.S. Bureau of the Census

Internal Revenue Service

Wachtell, Lipton, Rosen & Katz

National Institute of Standards & Technology

Weil, Gotshal, & Manges

National Science Foundation

World Health Organization

New York Attorney General