February, 2002

 

CURRICULUM VITAE

 

Michael D. Hurd

 

 

Present Positions:

 

Senior Economist and Director, RAND Center for the Study of Aging

                        RAND

                        1700 Main Street

                        Santa Monica, CA 90407

                        Telephone (310) 393-0411 *6945

                        FAX (310) 451-6923

                        E-mail:  mhurd@rand.org

 

Research Associate

                        National Bureau of Economic Research

                        1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138

 

Past Positions:

 

Assistant Professor, Stanford University, 1971‑1978

Associate Professor, SUNY at Stony Brook, 1978‑1987

Visiting Associate Professor of Economics, Stanford University, 1981‑1982             Visiting Professor, School of Business Administration, University of California,             Berkeley, 1984‑1985

Visiting Associate Professor of Economics, Stanford University, 1985

Professor, SUNY at Stony Brook, 1987‑ 2000

Chairman, Department of Economics, SUNY at Stony Brook, 1991-1992.

Visiting Senior Scientist, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 1997


Education and Degrees:

 

University of Utah, 1959‑1964: B.S., Electrical Engineering.

University of California, Berkeley, 1967‑1971:

                         M.S., Statistics

                         Ph.D., Economics

 

Scholarships, Fellowships, and Honors:

 

National Science Foundation Graduate Traineeship

Ford Foundation Career Fellowship

Department of Labor Manpower Dissertation Grant

Mellon Fellowship, 1974

NBER Faculty Research Fellowship, 1977‑1978

Hoover Institution National Fellow, 1981‑1982

Member, National Academy of Social Insurance, 1989‑

Chair, Economics of Aging Formal Interest Group, Gerontological Society, 1995-1996

1998 Fulvio Guerrini Lecture, University of Turin

 

Government, Public and Professional Service:

 

Consultant to NIA on reinterviewing the Retirement History Survey.

Consultant to SSA on reinterviewing the New Beneficiary Survey.

Consultant to NIA on Health and Retirement Survey.

Member of The Technical Panel of Experts to the Quadrennial Social Security             Advisory Council, 1990.

Committee on Economic Status for the Health and Retirement Study, 1990-1991.

Steering Committee for the Health and Retirement Study, 1990-

Member of the Panel of Experts to the Quadrennial Social Security Advisory             Council, 1991.

Steering Committee for Transfers and Income of the Impaired, a module for the

            PSID, 1992-93

Organizer of session on Economic Well-Being of the Elderly in Developed Countries, 1992 Annual Meetings of the Population Association of America.

Advisory Committee for the World Bank Old-Age Security Study, 1992-1993.

Workshop on Forecasting Disability, National Academy of Sciences, October,             1993.

Lectures on demographic changes, mortality risk and pensions:  Netherlands             Graduate School of Economics, Workshop on Pensions and Public Finance             in an Aging Society, 1993.

            Co-PI, Asset and Health Dynamics among the Oldest-Old, 1992-1999

            Co-PI, Health and Retirement Study, 1995-present

            Senior Investigator, Health and Retirement Study, 1995-1999

            Panel on Retirement Income Modeling, Committee on National Statistics,

                        National Research Council, 1995-96

            Workshop on Priorities for Data on the Aging Population, Committee on National

Statistics, National Research Council, 1996.

Social Security Advisory Board: forum on “A Long-Range Research and Program Evaluation Agenda for the Social Security Administration, 1997.

Temporary Member, Social Sciences and Population Study Section, NIH, 1997

            Member, Behavior and Sociology of Aging Review Subcommittee NIH (NIA-S), 1998-

Member of the Scientific Committee of The Center for Research on Pensions and

Welfare Policies, University of Turin, Italy, 1999-

            Consultant to the English Longitudinal Study of Aging, 2000-

            Consultant to the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, 2000-

 

Major Research Grants:

 

"A Compensation Measure of the Cost of Unemployment to the Unemployed," 1974‑1975, from ASPER/Labor.

"Transfers within Social Security," with John Shoven, July, 1982‑Sept, 1983, from ASPE/HHS.

"The Saving Behavior of the Elderly," July, 1984‑ July, 1986, from ASPE/HHS.

"Elderly People Living Alone:  Aging and the Prospects of Poverty," with David Wise, July, 1986‑June, 1987, from the Commonwealth Fund.

"The Joint Retirement Decision of Husbands and Wives," Oct, 1986‑Oct, 1987, from Social Security Administration (SSA).

"Studies in the Consumption and Wealth of the Elderly," Oct, 1987‑Dec., 1990, from National Institute on Aging (NIA).

"Forecasting the Consumption and Wealth of the Elderly," Oct, 1988‑Dec., 1990, from SSA.

"Income and Savings of the Elderly," May, 1989‑Dec., 1990, from AARP Andrus Foundation.

"Changing Social Security Survivorship Benefits," with David Wise, May, 1989‑Nov., 1990, from the Commonwealth Fund.

"Asset and Health Dynamics among the Oldest-Old," June, 1992-December, 1992(Co-PI) from

            NIA.

"Asset and Health Dynamics among the Oldest-Old," January, 1993-December, 1994 (Co-PI)

            from NIA.

"Wealth and Differential Mortality," senior investigator. D. McFadden, PI, Jan., 1994-Dec.,             1998 from NIA

"Asset and Health Dynamics among the Oldest-Old," January, 1995-December, 1999 (Co-PI)

            from NIA.

"Health and Retirement Study," January, 1995-December, 1999 (Co-PI) from NIA

"Subjective Beliefs and Saving Behavior," Jan, 1995-Dec., 1996, from NIA

"Using Subjective Information to Explain Savings Decisions," October, 1995-August, 1996,

            from NIA

"Using Subjective Information to Explain Savings Decisions," August, 1996-April, 2002, from

             NIA

 “The Value of Medicare,” October, 1997-September, 1999, from NIA

“Real Wealth Change between 1982 and 1991 among the Newly Retired, Feb, 1998-February, 2002, from Social Security Administration

“Exploratory Psychological Explanations for Savings,” March 1998-February 2000, from AARP Andrus Foundation.

“Economic and Demographic Determinants of Bequests,”  July, 1998-June, 2003, from NIA

“Health and Economic Status in Older Populations,” October, 1998-September, 2003 from NIA

“RAND Center for the Study of Aging,” July, 1994-June, 1999 from NIA

“RAND Center for the Study of Aging,” August, 1999-July, 2004 from NIA

“Health and Retirement Study,” January, 2000-December, 2005 (Co-PI) from NIA

“Evaluation of the Effects of Changing Social Security Early Entitlement and Normal Retirement Age,” May, 2000-March, 2002 (Co-PI) from SSA

“Health Status & Medical Treatment of Future Elderly- Implications for Medicare Program Expenditures,” June, 1999-June, 2002 (Co-PI) from CMS

“Expected Bequests & Their Distribution,” August, 2001-July, 2006 (Co-PI) from NIA

“Mortality Risk and Early Retirement,” October, 1999-October, 2002, from SSA

“Wage Growth and Saving for Retirement,” February, 2002-May, 2003, from SSA

“Internet Interviewing and the HRS,” April, 2002-March, 2007 (Co-PI) from NIA
Publications

 

 

Book

 

The Economic Effects of Aging in the United States and Japan, co-edited with Naohiro Yashiro,  1997, University of Chicago Press.

 

Guest Editor

 

“Symposium on Assets, Income and Retirement,” Fiscal Studies, 19 (2), May, 1998.

 

Papers

 

"Changes in Wage Rates Between 1957 and 1967," Review of Economics and Statistics, 53 (May 1971), pp. 189‑199.

 

"Small Sample Estimation of a Structural Equation with Autocorrelated Errors," Journal of the American Statistical Association, 67 (September, 1972), pp. 567‑573.

 

"The Hickman‑Coen Annual Growth Model: Structural Characteristics and Policy Responses," (with Bert Hickman and Robert M. Coen), International Economic Review, 20 (February, 1975), pp. 20‑37.

 

"The Effect of Social Security on Early Retirement," (with Michael Boskin), Journal of Public Economics, 10, (December,1978),pp. 361‑377.

 

"Estimation in Truncated Samples When There Is Heteroscedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, 11 (December, 1979), pp. 247‑258.

 

"A Compensation Measure of the Cost of Unemployment to the Unemployed," Quarterly Journal of Economics, 95 (September, 1980), pp. 225‑243.

 

"A Utility‑Based Analysis of the Wage Subsidy Program" (with John Pencavel), Journal of Public Economics, 15 (April, 1981), pp. 185‑201.

 

"Real Income and Wealth of the Elderly" (with John Shoven), American Economic Review, 62 (May 1982), pp. 314‑318.

 

"The Economic Status of the Elderly," (with John Shoven), in Financial Aspects of the United States Pension System, Z. Bodie and J. Shoven (editors), The University of Chicago Press, 1983, pp. 359‑398.

 

"The Effect of Social Security on Retirement in the Early 1970's," (with Michael Boskin), Quarterly Journal of Economics, 99 (November, 1984), pp. 767‑790.

 

"The Distributional Impact of Social Security," (with John Shoven), in Pensions, Labor and Individual Choice, D. Wise (editor), The University of Chicago Press, 1985, pp. 193‑221.

 

"Inflation Vulnerability, Income and Assets of the Elderly, 1969‑ 1979," (with John Shoven), in Horizontal Equity, Uncertainty and Economic Well‑Being, T. Smeeding and M. David (editors), The University of Chicago Press, 1985, pp. 125‑177.

 

"Indexing Social Security Benefits: A Separate Price Index for the Elderly?" (with Michael Boskin), Public Finance Quarterly, 13 (October, 1985), pp. 436‑449.

 

"Savings of the Elderly and Desired Bequests," American Economic Review, 77 (June, 1987), pp. 298‑312.

 

"Forecasting the Consumption and Wealth of the Elderly," in Social Security and Private Pensions:  Providing for Retirement in the 21st Century, S. Wachter (editor), D.C. Health, and Co., 1988, pp. 47‑69.

 

"The Wealth and Poverty of Widows:  Assets Before and After the Husband's Death," (with David Wise), in The Economics of Aging, D. Wise (editor), The University of Chicago Press, 1989, pp. 177‑199.

 

"The Poverty of Widows:  Future Prospects," in The Economics of Aging, D. Wise (editor), The University of Chicago Press, 1989, pp. 201‑222.

 

"The Annuity Value of Social Security," in The Political Economy of Social Security, B. A. Gustafsson and N. Anders Klevmarken (Editors),  Amsterdam:  Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1989, pp. 67‑82.

 

"The Joint Retirement Decision of Husbands and Wives," Social Security Bulletin, January, 1989, pp. 29-32.

 

"The Economic Status of the Elderly," Science, 244, (May 12, 1989), pp. 659‑644.

 

"The Importance of Gifts and Inheritances among the Affluent," (with B. Gabriella Mundaca), in The Measurement of Saving,  Investment, and Wealth, R. Lipsey and H. Tice (editors), The University of Chicago Press, 1989, pp. 737‑758.

 

"Mortality Risk and Bequests," Econometrica, 57 (July, 1989), pp. 779‑813.

 

"Research on the Elderly: Economic Status, Retirement, and Consumption & Saving,"  Journal of Economic Literature, 28 (June, 1990), pp. 565‑637.

 

"The Joint Retirement Decision of Husbands and Wives," in Issues in the Economics of Aging, D. Wise (editor), The University of Chicago Press, 1990, pp. 231‑254.

 

"Employee Benefits and Retirement Income Adequacy:  Data, Research and Policy Issues," (with Emily Andrews) in Z. Bodie and A. Munnell (editors) Pensions and the Economy, Philadelphia:  The University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992, pp. 1-30.

 

"Wealth Depletion and Life‑Cycle Consumption by the Elderly,"  in Topics in the Economics of Aging, Ed: David Wise, Chicago:  The University of Chicago Press, 1992, pp. 135-160.

 

"The Economics of Aging," in Gerontechnology, Editors: H. Bousma and J. Graafmans, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 1992, pp. 15-30.

 

"Simplified Estimation of a Nonlinear Simultaneous Equations Model with Censoring;† A Monte Carlo Study," (with H.K. Lee), The Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, 43 (1992), pp. 55-75.

 

"The Effect of Changes in Social Security on Bequests," Journal of Economics, Supplement 7, Bernhard Felderer, ed., 1993, pp. 157-176.

 

"Measuring the Bequest Motive:  The Effect of Children on Saving by the Elderly in the U.S." Savings and Bequests, Toshiaki Tachibanaki (editor), Ann Arbor:  University of Michigan Press, 1994, pp. 111-136.

 

"The Economic Status of the Elderly in the United States," in Aging in the United States and  in Japan, Economic Trends, Eds.:  Yukio Noguchi and David A. Wise, Chicago:  University of Chicago Press, 1994, pp. 63-83.

 

"Evaluation of the Subjective Probabilities of Survival in the HRS," with Kathleen McGarry, Journal of Human Resources, 30, 1995, S268-S292.

 

"Household Saving Rates in Korea:  Evidence on Life-Cycle Consumption Behavior," with H. K. Lee, The Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, 9, 1995, pp. 174-199.

 

"The Effect of Labor Market Rigidities on the Labor Force Behavior of Older Workers," in D. Wise, ed., Advances in the Economics of Aging,  Chicago:  University of Chicago Press, 1996, pp. 11-58.

 

"Changing Social Security Survivorship Benefits and the Poverty of Widows," with David Wise, in Hurd and Yashiro, eds., The Economic Effects of Aging in the United States and Japan, University of Chicago Press, 1997, pp. 319-332.

 

"The Effects of Demographic Trends on Consumption, Saving and Government Expenditures in the U.S.," in Hurd and Yashiro, eds., The Economic Effects of Aging in the United States and Japan, University of Chicago Press, 1997, pp. 39-57.

 

"Tests of the Permanent Income-Life Cycle Hypothesis based on Household-level Panel Data from Korea," with H.K. Lee, The Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, 1997, 11 (March), pp. 105-122.

 

"The Economics of Individual Aging," The Handbook of Population and Family Economics, Mark R. Rosenzweig and Oded Stark (editors), North Holland Press, 1997, pp. 891-966.

 

“Medical Insurance and the Use of Health Care Services by the Elderly,” with Kathleen McGarry,  Journal of Health Economics, 16, 1997, pp. 129-154.

 

“Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest-Old:  An Overview of the Survey,” with Beth Soldo, Willard Rodgers, and Robert Wallace,  Journal of Gerontology, 1997,  vol. 52B, (May)  pp 1-20.

 

“Adequacy and Equity Issues:  Another View,” in Social Security in the 21st Century, Eric R. Kingson and James H. Schulz (editors), 1997, New York:  Oxford University Press, pp. 219-224.

 

"Subjective Survival Curves and Life Cycle Behavior," with Daniel McFadden, and Li Gan, in Inquiries in the Economics of Aging, David Wise, ed., 1998, Chicago:  University of Chicago Press, pp. 259-305.

 

“Household Wealth of the Elderly under Alternative Imputation Procedures," with Hilary Hoynes and Harish Chand, in Inquiries in the Economics of Aging, David Wise, ed., 1998, Chicago:  University of Chicago Press, pp. 229-257.

 

“Symposium on Assets, Income and Retirement,” Fiscal Studies, 19 (2), May, 1998, pp 141-151

 

“Consumption and Saving Balances of the Elderly:  Experimental Evidence on Survey Response Bias,” with Dan McFadden, Harish Chand, Li Gan, Angela Merrill and Michael Roberts, in D. Wise, ed.,  Frontiers in the Economics of Aging, 1998, Chicago: University of Chicago Press,  pp 353-387.

 

"Labor Market Transitions in the HRS:  Effects of the Subjective Probability of Retirement and of Pension Eligibility," in Wealth, Work and Health:  Innovations in Measurement in the Social Sciences, James P. Smith and Robert Willis, editors, 1999, University of Michigan Press, pp 267-290.

 

“The Association of Influenza Vaccine Receipt with Health and Economic Expectations among Elders:  The AHEAD Study,” with Robert B. Wallace and Sara Nichols, in Wealth, Work and Health:  Innovations in Measurement in the Social Sciences, James P. Smith and Robert Willis, editors, 1999, University of Michigan Press, pp. 326-334.

 

“Anchoring and Acquiescence Bias in Measuring Assets in Household Surveys,” Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 19 (1-3), 1999, pp 111-136.

 

“L’invecchiamento della popolazione.  Conseguenze per l’individuo, la famiglia, la società,”  (“An Aging Population: Consequences for the Individual, the Family and Society”), Biblioteca della liberta, 151, 1999, pp1-14.

 

“Predictors of Mortality among the Elderly,” with Daniel McFadden and Angela Merrill, in Themes in the Economics of Aging, David Wise, editor, 2001, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp 171-197.

 

“Anticipated and Actual Bequests,” with James P. Smith, in Themes in the Economics of Aging, David Wise, editor, 2001, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp 357-389.

 

“Portfolio Holdings of the Elderly,” in Household Portfolios, Luigi Guiso, Michael Haliassos, and Tullio Jappelli, editors, 2001, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp 431-472.

 

"The Predictive Validity of Subjective Probabilities of Survival,” with Kathleen McGarry, forthcoming in The Economic Journal, October, 2002.

 

“Enhancing the Quality of Data on Income:  Recent Innovations from the HRS,” with F. Thomas Juster and James P. Smith, forthcoming, Journal of Human Resources.

 

“Healthy, Wealthy and Wise?  Tests for Direct Causal Paths,” with Peter Adams, Daniel McFadden, Angela Merrill and Tiago Ribeiro, forthcoming, Journal of Econometrics.

 

“Forecasting the Nursing Home Population,” with Darius Lakdawalla, Dana P. Goldman, Jay Bhattacharya, Geoffrey F. Joyce, and Constantijn W.A. Panis, forthcoming, Medical Care.

 

Notes and Comments

 

"Comment on The Dissaving of the Elderly:  Tests of the Pure Life  Cycle Hypothesis of Consumption,'" (by B. D. Bernheim) in Issues in Pension Economics, J. Shoven (editor), The University of Chicago Press, 1987, pp. 275‑279.

 

"Comment on  Pensions and Turnover,'" (by E. Lazear and R. Moore) in Pensions in the U.S. Economy, Z. Bodie, J. Shoven and D. Wise (editors), The University of Chicago Press, 1988, pp. 188‑190.

 

"Comment on  The Dynamics of Housing Demand by the Elderly:  User Cost Effects,'" (by C. Ai, J. Feinstein, D. McFadden, and H. Pollakowski) in Issues in the Economics of Aging, D. Wise (editor), The University of Chicago Press, 1990, pp. 82‑87.

 

"Comment on The Impact of the Demographic Transition on Government Spending,'" (by John Shoven, Michael Topper and David Wise) in Studies in the Economics of Aging, D. Wise (editor), The University of Chicago Press, 1994.

 

"Comment on Projecting the Future Size and Health Status of the U.S. Elderly Population' (by Kenneth Manton, Burt Singer and Eric Stallard), and on  Uncertainties and New Evidence about the Prospects for Longer Life Expectancy,'" (by James Vaupel) in Studies in the Economics of Aging, D. Wise (editor), The University of Chicago Press, 1994.

 

“Comment on Longevity-Insured Retirement Distributions from Pension Plans: Market and Regulatory Issues,” (by Jeffrey R. Brown and Mark J. Warshawsky), presented at the conference on Public Policies and Private Pensions, The Brookings Institution, Washington DC, September, 2000

 

Book Reviews

 

An Introduction to Applied Macroeconomics by Edwin Kuh and Richard Schmalensee, in Journal of Econometrics, 1 (1973), pp. 403‑406.

 

The Wharton Quarterly Econometric Forecasting Model Mark III by Michael McCarthy, in Journal of the American Statistical Association, 68 (December, 1973), pp. 1025‑1027.

 

Econometric Studies of Macro and Monetary Relations, Alan Powell and Ross Williams (editors), in Journal of the American Statistical Association, 69 (September 1974), pp. 833‑834.

 

Economics of Population Aging by James Schulz, Allan Borowski and William Crown, in The Journal of Economic Literature, XXX (3) September, 1992, pp. 1529-1531.

 

 

Selected Unpublished Papers

 

"The Marginal Value of Social Security," NBER Working Paper 2411, October, 1987.

 

"Some Doubts about the Empirical Relevance of the Strategic Bequest Motive," with Du Wang, presented at the NBER Summer Institute, July, 1991.

 

"Forecasting the Consumption, Income and Wealth of the Elderly," final report to the Social Security Administration, February, 1992.

 

"Population Aging and the Saving Rate:  The Effect of Mortality Risk on Saving by the Elderly," presented at the European Science Foundation Conference on the Economics of Aging, San Felieu de Guixols, Spain, October, 1992.

 

"The Relationship Between Job Characteristics and Retirement," with Kathleen McGarry, presented at the HRS Early Results Workshop, Ann Arbor, September, 1993, and NBER Working Paper 4558.

 

"The Adequacy of Retirement Resources and the Role of Pensions," presented at the Conference on New Perspectives on Public Policy Towards Pensions, Washington, D.C., October, 1993.

 

"Using Subjective Survival Probabilities in Life-Cycle Models," presented at the Conference on Savings and Retirement, Venice, Italy, January, 1995.

 

"Wealth, Subjective Survival Probabilities, and Social Security Wealth," with Hilary Hoynes and Harish Chand, presented at the NBER Conference on the Economics of Aging, The Boulders, May, 1995.

 

"Social Security:  The Public Pension System of the U.S.,"  presented at the EISS Conference on Social Security, Dublin, September, 1995

 

"Mortality Risk and Consumption by Couples,"  presented at the IFS-Bank of Portugal Conference on The Microeconomics of Saving and Consumption Growth, Lisbon, November, 1995, revised, January, 1997, and NBER Working paper 7048, March, 1999

 

"Public and Private Pensions and their Effect on Retirement," presented at the International Symposium on "Scenarios to a Vital Aged Society," Tokyo, December, 1996

 

“The Relationship Between Personality Measures and Family Status and Economic Outcomes,” with Karen Swallen , presented at the TMR/Center conference on savings, Tilburg, The Netherlands, July, 1997, and at the Genontological Society meetings, Cincinnati, November, 1997

 

“Healthy, Wealthy and Wise?  Socioeconomic Status, Morbidity and Mortality among the Elderly,” with Daniel McFadden and Angela Merrill, presented at the TMR Conference on Saving, Tilburg, The Netherlands, July, 1998, and at the NBER Summer Institute, 1998

 

“An Analysis of the Choice to Cash-Out, Maintain, or Annuitize Pension Rights At Job Change or Retirement,” with Lee Lillard and Constantijn Panis, presented at the NBER Summer Institute, 1998, RAND DRU-1979-DOL, October 1998.

 

“The Effects of Bracketing and Anchoring on Measurement in the Health and Retirement Study,” with Willard Rodgers, presented at the PSID “Conference on Data Quality in Longitudinal Surveys,” October, 1998, University of Michigan.

 

“Health,  Wealth, and the Role of Institutions,” with Arie Kapteyn, presented at the 8th TMR Conference on Saving, Paris, October, 2000 and at the PSID Conference on Cross‑National Comparative Research Using Panel Surveys, Ann Arbor, October, 2000; revised March, 2001

 

“Saving for Retirement:  Self-Assessed Savings Adequacy and Savings Plans,” with Julie M. Zissimopoulos, presented at the 8th TMR Conference on Saving, Paris, October, 2000

 

“Comparing Disability Growth among the Young and Old,” with Darius Lakdawalla, Jay Bhattacharya, Dana P. Goldman, Geoffrey F. Joyce, and Constantijn W.A. Panis, RAND mimeo, March, 2001

 

“The Effects of Subjective Survival on Retirement and Social Security Claiming,” with James P. Smith and Julie M. Zissimopoulos, presented at the Retirement Research Conference, May, 2001

 

“Recovering True Distributions from Bracketed Responses,” with Arie Kapteyn and Julie M. Zissimopoulos, presented at the TMR Conference on Saving and Pensions, Evian, France,

August, 2001

 

“The Effects of Large Capital Gains on Work and Consumption:  Evidence from four waves of the HRS,” with Monika Reti, RAND typescript, October, 2001.

 

“Are Bequests Accidental or Desired?” presented at the conference on The Role and Impact of Gifts and Estates, Woodstock, VT, October, 2001.

 

“Expected Bequests and their Distribution,” with James P. Smith, RAND typescript, February, 2002