ROBERT E. BALDWIN



EDUCATION AND POSITIONS

PUBLICATIONS

Books

  1. Economics of Mobilization and War (with Campbell, McKie, Freutel and Scott). Homewood, IL: Richard Irwin, Inc. 1952. Chapter 11, pages 171-90.

  2. Economic Development, Theory, History, Policy (with G.M. Meier). New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1957, 542 pp. 7th printing, 1966. Reprinted 1976 (Krieger Publishing Co., Huntington, NY). Translated into Spanish, Polish, Arabic, Vietnamese and Indonesian.

  3. Economic Development and Growth. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1966. 2nd., 1972. Reprint ed., 1980. 133 pp. Translated into Swedish, Czechoslovakian and Portuguese.

  4. Economic Development and Export Growth, 1920-1960, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966. 264 pp.

  5. Non-Tariff Distortions of International Trade. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1970. 201 pp. Translated into Swedish.

  6. Disease and Economic Development: The Economic Impact of Parasitic Disease in St. Lucia (with B. Weisbrod, R. Andreano, I. Epstein, and A. Kelly). Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1974.

  7. Foreign Trade Regimes and Economic Development: The Philippines. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1975.

  8. Recent Issues and Initiatives in U.S. Trade Policy, (ed.). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1984.

  9. The Structure and Evolution of Recent U.S. Trade Policy (with Anne Krueger, co-ed.). National Bureau of Economic Research-University of Chicago Press, 1984.

  10. The Political Economy of U.S. Import Policy. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1985.

  11. International Trade and Finance: Readings (with J. David Richardson). Boston: Little Brown and Company, 1974; 3rd edition, 1986.

  12. Current U.S. Trade Policy: Analysis, Agenda, and Administration (with J. David Richardson, co-ed.). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1986.

  13. Issues in U.S.-EC Trade Relations (with Andre Sapir and Carl Hamilton, co-eds.). National Bureau of Economic Research-University of Chicago Press, 1988.

  14. Trade Policy Issues and Empirical Analysis (ed.), National Bureau of Economic Research-University of Chicago Press, 1988.

  15. Trade Policy in a Changing World Economy, London: Harvester Wheatsheaf and Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988. (Collected Papers.)

  16. Empirical Studies of Commercial Policy (ed.), National Bureau of Economic Research-University of Chicago Press, 1991.

  17. The Uruguay Round and Beyond: Problems and Prospects (with J. David Richardson, co-ed.), Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1991.

  18. The Political Economy of U.S.- Taiwan Trade (with Tain-Jy Chen and Douglas Nelson), University of Michigan Press (forthcoming).

Papers

  1. "Equilibrium in International Trade: A Diagrammatic Analysis." Quarterly Journal of Economics, November 1948, 748-762.

  2. "The New Welfare Economics and Gains in International Trade." Quarterly Journal of Economics, February 1952, 91-101. Reprinted in American Economic Association, Readings in International Trade, 1968.

  3. "The Secular Change in the Terms of Trade." Revista Brasileiro de Economia, December 1952.

  4. "A Vision of American Capitalism." Explorations in Entrepreneurial History, May 1952, 218-223.

  5. "A Comparison of Welfare Criteria." Review of Economic Studies, No. 55, (1953-54), 154-161.

  6. "Some Theoretical Aspects of Economic Development." Journal of Economic History, 1954, 333-345.

  7. "Secular Movements in the Terms of Trade." American Economic Review, May 1955, p. 255-269.

  8. "Patterns of Development in Newly Settled Regions." The Manchester School of Economic and Social Studies, Vol. XXIV, May 1956, 161-179. Reprinted in Eicher and Witt's Readings on Development, in Rosenberg's The Economics of Technological Change, and in Bobbs-Merrill's Reprint Series in Economics.

  9. "America's Foreign Aid Policy." Testimony before Subcommittee of Joint Economic Committee of Congress (November 1957), Reprinted in Economics in Action, S.M. Mark and D.M. Slate, (eds.), Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Inc., 1959.

  10. "The Commodity Compositions of Trade: Selected Industrial Countries, 1900-1954." The Review of Economics and Statistics, February 1958, 50-68.

  11. "America's Balance of Payments Position." Part V. International Influence on the American Economy, Hearings before the Joint Economic Committee of Congress on Employment, Growth, and Price Levels. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1959, 972-974.

  12. "The Effects of Tariffs on International and Domestic Prices." Quarterly Journal of Economics, February 1960, 65-78.

  13. "Exchange Rate Policy and Economic Development." Economic Development and Cultural Change, July 1961, 598-603.

  14. "Wage Policy in a Dual Economy -- The Case of Northern Rhodesia." Race, November 1962, 73-87.

  15. "Implications of Structural Changes in Commodity Trade." Hearings before the Joint Economic Committee of Congress on Factors Affecting the United States Balance of Payments. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 57-72.

  16. "Export Technology and Development from a Subsistence Level." Economic Journal, March 1963.

  17. "Market Structures and Resource Misallocation in Underdeveloped Countries" (with W.R. Allen). Economia Internazionale, November 1963.

  18. "Investment Policy in Underdeveloped Countries," in Economic Development in Africa, papers presented to the Nyasaland Economic Symposium, July 1962, E.F. Jackson, (ed.). Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1965.

  19. "Tariff-Cutting Techniques in the Kennedy Round," in Trade, Growth, and the Balance of Payments: Essays in Honor of Gottfried Haberler, R.E. Baldwin et al., 1965.

  20. "The Kennedy Round -- Troubles and Prospects." Farm Policy Forum, Vol. 17, No. 4, 1964-1965.

  21. "The Role of Capital Goods Trade in the Theory of International Trade." American Economic Review, September 1965.

  22. "Substitution and Income Effects on the Supply Side." Indian Economic Journal, January-March 1966.

  23. "A New Trade Policy for Developing Countries." Review of Social Economy, March 1966.

  24. "Toward the Seventh Round of GATT Trade Negotiations." In Issues and Objectives of U.S. Foreign Trade Policy, Joint Economic Committee of Congress. Washington: Government Printing Office, September 1967.

  25. "Comments on Haberler's Reflections on the Trade of Socialist Economies." In International Trade and Central Planning, Alan Brown and Egon Neuberger (eds.), 1968.

  26. "Non-Tariff Barriers: A Brief Survey." In Review of U.S. Trade Policy, U.S. Senate Committee on Finance. Washington: Government Printing Office, February 1968.

  27. "The Role of Capital Goods Trade in the Theory of International Trade: A Reply." American Economic Review, September 1968.

  28. "The Case Against Infant-Industry Protection." Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 77, No. 3, May-June 1969.

  29. "International Trade in Inputs and Outputs." American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings, May 1970. Reprinted in Economics of Information and Knowledge, D.M. Lamberton (ed.), New York: Penguin Books, 1971.

  30. "Adjusted to Increased International Competition." Testimony before Subcommittee on Foreign Economic Policy, Joint Economic Committee of Congress, September 29, 1970. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1970.

  31. "Determinants of the Commodity Structure of U.S. Trade." American Economic Review, March 1971.

  32. "A Multilateral Model of Trade-Balancing Tariff Concessions" (with G. Lage). The Review of Economics and Statistics, August 1971.

  33. "Non-Tariff Barriers to Trade and Investment." In United States International Economic Policy in an Interdependent World. Paper submitted to Commission on International Trade and Investment, Washington, D.C., 1971.

  34. "Government Purchasing Policies, Other NTBs, and the International Monetary Crisis" (with J. David Richardson). Fourth Pacific Conference on Trade and Development, Ottawa, 1971.

  35. "Customs Unions, Preferential Systems, and World Welfare." International Trade and Money, M. Connally and A. Swoboda (eds.), 1972.

  36. "Export Subsidization." Bulletin for International Fiscal Documentation, November 1972.

  37. "Policy Problems in the Adjustment Process (U.S.)" (with J.H. Mutti). In Prospects for Partnership, Helen Hughes (ed.), Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1973.

  38. "Disease and Labor Productivity" (with B. Weisbrod). Economic Development and Cultural Change, Spring 1974.

  39. "International Trade and International Relations" (with David Kay). International Organization, Winter 1975.

  40. "International Trade and Economic Growth: A Diagrammatic Analysis." American Economic Review, March 1975.

  41. "Der Abban der Nichttarifbichen Beschrankurgen des Veethandels als Ziel der Neuen GATT-Verhandlungen." Europa Archiv, August 1974.

  42. "The Formation and Effects of U.S. Trade Policy." Research Project for the U.S. Department of Labor, 163 pp., 1975.

  43. "Philippines." In Trade Strategies for Development, National Bureau of Economic Research and Asian Development Bank, 1975.

  44. "Industrialization Programme of the Philippines." In Strategy for Development, John Barratt, David Collier, Kurt Glaser, and Herman Monnig (eds.), London: Macmillan Press, 1976.

  45. "Political Economy of Postwar U.S. Trade Policy." The Bulletin, New York University Graduate School of Business Administration, 1976.

  46. "Trade and Employment Effects in the United States of Multilateral Tariff Reductions." American Economic Review, Vol. 66, No. 2, May 1976.

  47. "MFN Tariff Reductions and Developing Country Trade Benefits Under GSP." Economic Journal, March 1977.

  48. "Trends in World Trade, Limits to Economic and Employment Growth, and the New International Economic Order." In Trade and Employment in Asia and the Pacific, Council for Asian Manpower Studies, Manila.

  49. "Crucial Issues for Current International Trade Policy" (with J. David Richardson and John H. Mutti). Report to Trade and Planning Panel, United Nations Association, August 1977.

  50. "Issues in the New International Economic Order." Portfolio, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1977.

  51. "World Trade after the Tokyo Round." Korea International Economic Institute Seminar Series, No. 18, November 1978.

  52. "The General Design of a Strategy of Industrial Adaptation." In Conference volume, Adaptation of Canadian Manufacturing Industry, sponsored by the Economic Council of Canada, 1978.

  53. "International Resources Flows and Patterns of Trade and Development." Presented as V.K. Kamaswami Memorial Lecture, New Delhi, India, December 1977. Indian Economic Review, April 1978.

  54. "U.S. Tariff Effects on Trade and Employment in Detailed SIC Industries" (with Wayne E. Lewis). In The Impact of International Trade and Investment on Employment, William G. Dewald (ed.). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1978.

  55. "Determinants of Trade and Foreign Investment: Further Evidence." The Review of Economics and Statistics, February 1979.

  56. "Beyond the Tokyo Round." Thames Essay No. 22. London: Trade Policy Research Centre, 1979.

  57. "The Multilateral Trade Negotiations: Toward Greater Liberalization?" American Enterprise Institute, Special Analysis, 1979.

  58. "Measuring Trade and Employment Effects of Various Trade Policies." In Evaluating the Effects of Trade Liberalization by R.E. Baldwin, R.M. Stern, and Henryk Kierzkowski, Nos. 3 and 4 in Commercial Policy Issues, Gerard and Victoria Curzon (eds.) Geneva: Graduate Institute of International Studies, 1979.

  59. "Crucial Issues for Current International Trade" (with J. David Richardson and J.M. Mutti). In The New International Economic Order: A U.S. Response, D. Denoon (ed.) New York: New York University Press, 1979.

  60. "Protectionist Pressures in the United States." In Challenges to a Liberal International Economic Order, R. Amacher, G. Haberler, and T. Willett (eds.), American Enterprise Institute, 1979.

  61. "Political Economy of Industrialization: The Philippine Case." In Current Issues in Commercial Policy and Diplomacy, John Black and Brian Hindley (eds.) New York: Macmillan Press, 1980.

  62. "The Economics of the GATT." In Issues in International Economics, Peter Oppenheimer (ed.) London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1980.

  63. "Welfare Effects on the United States of a Significant Multilateral Tariff Reduction" (with J. David Richardson). Journal of International Economics, August 1980.

  64. "The Political Economy of Protectionism." In Import Competition and Response, Jagdish Bhagwati (ed.), Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.

  65. "North American Responses to Imports from New Industrial Countries" (with Malcolm Bale). In New and Old Industrial Countries, C.J. Saunders (ed.), University of Sussex. Butterworths, 1981.

  66. "Adjustment Measures and Adjustment Pressures: The U.S. Case." In The State of the World Economy: Economic Yearbook 1981. International Chamber of Commerce, 1981.

  67. "U.S. Political Pressures Against Adjustment to Greater Imports." In Trade and Growth of the Advanced Developing Countries in the Pacific Basin. Papers and Proceedings of the Eleventh Pacific Trade and Development Conference, Wontack Hong and Lawrence B. Krause (eds.) Seoul: Korea Development Institute, 1981.

  68. "Restricciones No Arancelarias del Comercio Internacional." In Intercambio v Desarrollo, Ricardo Efrench-Davis (ed.) Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1981.

  69. "Hur Kan Vi Föklara och Bemöta den Tiellagande Protektionismen?" Ekonimisk Debatt, 1981.

  70. "Gottfried Haberler's Contributions to International Trade Theory and Policy." Quarterly Journal of Economics, February 1982.

  71. "The Inefficacy of Trade Policy." Frank D. Graham Memorial Lecture, Essays in International Finance, Princeton University, No. 150, December 1982.

  72. "Trade Policies in Developed Countries." Chapter 12 in North-Holland Handbook in International Economics, R.W. Jones and P.B. Kenen (eds.), Vol. I, North-Holland, 1983.

  73. "U.S. Policies in Response to Growing International Trade Competitiveness." International Policy Research, National Science Foundation, 1983.

  74. "India and the Tokyo Round" (with André Sapir). World Development, Vol. 11, No. 7, pp. 565-574, 1983.

  75. "A Technique for Indicating Comparative Costs and Predicting Changes in Trade Ratios" (with R. Spence Hilton). The Review of Economics and Statistics, February 1984.

  76. "Trade Policies under the Reagan Administration." In Recent Issues and Initiatives in U.S. Trade Policy, Robert E. Baldwin (ed.) Cambridge, Mass: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1984.

  77. "Responding to Trade-Distorting Policies of Other Countries" (with T. Scott Thompson). American Economic Review, Proceedings, May 1984.

  78. "Recent U.S. Trade Policy and its Global Implications" (with J. David Richardson). Presented at National Bureau of Economic Research Conference, "Global Implications of the Trade Patterns of East and Southeast Asia," Kuala Lumpur, 1984.

  79. "The Changing Nature of U.S. Trade Policy since World War II." In The Structure and Evolution of Recent U.S. Trade Policy, Robert E. Baldwin and Anne Krueger (eds.), National Bureau of Economic Research - University of Chicago, 1984.

  80. "Rent-Seeking and Trade Policy: An Industry Approach." Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv Band 120, Heft 4, 1984. Also in Economic Incentives, Bela Balassa and Herbert Giersch (eds.), Macmillan, 1986. Also National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 1499, November 1984.

  81. "U.S. Trade Policy and Asian Development." Asian Development Review, 2:2, 1984.

  82. "Trade Policy and Employment." In Employment Growth and Structural Change, Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 1985.

  83. "Sectoral Adjustment Implications of Current U.S. Trends in Trade Competitiveness" (with Stephen Parker). In Structural Adjustment in Developed Open Economies, Douglas Hague (ed.) International Economic Association, 1985.

  84. "Ineffectiveness of Protection in Promoting Social Goals." The World Economy, Vol. 8, No. 2, June 1985.

  85. "Lobbying for Public Goods: The Case of Import Protection." Presented at the National Bureau of Economic Research Conference, The Political Economy of Trade Policy, Dedham, Massachusetts, January 10-11, 1986.

  86. "Toward More Efficient Procedures for Multilateral Trade Negotiations." The Swiss Review of International Economic Relations (Aussenwirtschaft), Vol. 41, Heft II/III, September 1986. Also in Protection and Structural Adjustment, Heinz Hauser (ed.), Verlag Rüegger, 1986.

  87. "Fashioning a Negotiating Package Between Developing and Developed Countries," Council on Foreign Relations Study Group on "The Integration of Developing Countries into the World Economy," October 16-17, 1986.

  88. "Alternative Liberalization Strategies." In Free Trade in the World Economy: Towards an Opening of Markets, Herbert Giersch (ed.), Kiel: Kiel Institute of World Economics, 1987. Also National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 2045.

  89. "The New Protectionism: A Response to Shifts in National Economic Power." In The New Protectionist Threat to World Welfare, Dominick Salvatore (ed.), North-Holland, 1987. Also National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 1823.

  90. "Game-Modeling Multilateral Trade Negotiations" (with Richard N. Clarke). Journal of Policy Modeling 9(2), 1987. Also National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 1588.

  91. "GATT Reform: Selected Issues." In Protection and Competition in International Trade: Essays in Honour of Max Corden, H. Kierzkowski (ed.) London: Basil Blackwell, 1987.

  92. "The Political Market for Protection in Industrial Countries: New Empirical Evidence" (with Kym Anderson). In Protection, Cooperation, Integration and Development: Essays in Honour of Professor Hiroshi Kitamura, Ali M. El-Agraa (ed.), London: Macmillan Press, 1987. Also World Bank Working Paper No. 492.

  93. "Multilateral Liberalization." In The Uruguay Round: A Handbook on the Multilateral Trade Negotiations, J. Michael Finger and Andrzej Olechowski (eds.), Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1987.

  94. "U.S. and Foreign Competition in the Developing Countries of the Asian Pacific Rim." In The United States in the World Economy, Martin Feldstein (eds.), Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988. Also National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 2208.

  95. "Increasing Access to Markets for Manufactured Goods: Opportunities in the Uruguay Round," in Anne O. Krueger, Developing With Trade: LDCs and the International Economy, San Francisco: Institute for Contemporary Studies Press, 1988.

  96. "Structural Change and Patterns of International Trade," in J. Black and Alasdair McBean (eds.), Causes of Changes in the Structure of International Trade, London: Macmillans, 1989.

  97. "The Effects of Protection on Domestic Output" (with Richard Green). In Trade Policy Issues and Empirical Analysis, Robert E. Baldwin (ed.), National Bureau of Economic Research-University of Chicago Press, 1988.

  98. "Other Issues: North-South Trade, Intellectual Property Rights, and Subsidies." In Issues in the Uruguay Round, Robert E. Baldwin and J. David Richardson (eds.), NBER Conference Report, 1988.

  99. "U.S. Trade Policy, 1945-1988: From Foreign to Domestic Policy," in The Direction of Trade Policy, Charles Pearson and James Reidel, (eds.), Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1990.

  100. "The Political Economy of Trade Policy," Journal of Economic Perspective, 3, 4, Fall 1989, 119-135.

  101. "U.S. Trade Policy: Recent Changes and Future U.S. Interests," American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings, 70, 3, May 1989, 128-133.

  102. "Measuring the Effects of Nontariff Trade-Distorting Policy" in Trade Theory and Economic Reform, Jaime de Melo and Andre Sapir (eds.), Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1991.

  103. "The Political-Economy Perspective on Trade Policy," in Markets and Politicians: Politicized Economic Choice, Arye Hillman (ed.), Boston: Kleewer Academic Publishers, 1990.

  104. "Recent U.S. Trade Policy at the Multilateral and Bilateral Levels," in Ernst Fraenkel Vortrage zur Amerikaneschen Politik, Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft unter Geschechte, Number 4, Carl-Ludwig Noltfrerich, ed., Berlin: Free University of Berlin, 1990.

  105. "A Managed Trading System or Managing Under the Current Trading System?: A Panel Comment," in An American Trade Strategy: Options for the 1990s, Robert Lawrence and Charles Schultze (eds.), Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1990.

  106. "Concluding Observations," International Economic Transactions: Issues in Measurement and Empirical Analysis, Peter Hooper and J. David Richardson (eds.), Studies in Income and Wealth, Volume 55, Chicago: University of Chicago and National Bureau of Economics, 1991.

  107. "Political Aspects of the Administration of Trade Remedy Laws," (with Michael O. Moore) in Down the Dumps: Administration of the Unfair Trade Laws, Richard Boluck and Robert Litan (eds.). Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1991.

  108. "Are Economists' Traditional Trade Policy Views Valid?" to be published in the Journal of Economic Literature, June 1992, 804-829.

  109. "What's at Stake for the LDCs, Now that the Uruguay Round Talks Have Been Suspended?" Pakistan Development Review: Papers and Proceedings, Part I, Vol. 30, No. 4, Winter 1991.

  110. "Comments on the Stolper-Samuelson Theorem," in A.V. Deardorff and R.M. Stern, (eds.), The Stolper-Samuelson Theorem: A Golden Jubilee, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 309-315.

  111. "The Political Economy of U.S.-Taiwanese Trade and Other International Economic Relations" (with Douglas Nelson), in T. Ito and A.O. Krueger, (eds.), Trade and Protectionism, Chicago: NBER-University of Chicago Press.

  112. "Assessing the Uruguay Round Negotiations in Terms of Modern Trade and Political Analysis," in The Uruguay Round: Unresolved Issues and Prospects, Taeho Bark and Wook Chae (eds.), Seoul: Korea Institute for International Economic Policy, 1991.

  113. "Recent Changes in U.S. Trade Policy Toward the Republic of China and other Newly Industrializing Countries" in R.O.C.-U.S.A. Relations, 1979-1989, Jan-Ling Joanne Chang (eds.), Taipei, Taiwan: Institute of American Culture, Academia Sinica, 1991.

  114. "Assessing the Fair Trade and Safeguard Laws in Terms of Modern Trade and Political Economy Analysis," The World Economy, 15, March 1992, 185-202.

  115. "Are Economists' Traditional Trade Policy Views Still Valid?" Journal of Economic Literature, XXX, June 1992, 804-829.

  116. "Introduction and Overview" (with J. David Richardson and Douglas Nelson), introduction to the special issue of The World Economy on the Political Economy of International Market Access, 15, 6 (November 1992), 679-884.

  117. "Adapting the GATT to a More Regionalized World: A Political Economy Perspective," in Kym Anderson and Richard Blackhurst (eds.), Regional Integration and the Global Trading System, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1993.

  118. "Endodgenous Policy Cycles" (with Richard Baldwin), presented at NBER's Summer Institute, International Trade and Investment, Cambridge, MA, August 4, 1992.

  119. "Development Experience in Africa and Asia: An Overview," paper presented at United Nations interregional symposium, Abidjan, Cote dī Ivoire, June 15, 1992, forthcoming in conference volume.

  120. "Sales and Purchases of Goods and Services Between Americans and Foreigners," appendix A in Behind the Numbers: U.S. Trade in the World Economy, Anne Kester (ed.), National Academy Press, 1992.

  121. "Changes in the Global Trading System: A Response to Shifts in National Economic Power," in Protectionism and World Welfare, Dominick Salvatore (ed.), Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

  122. "The Post-Uruguay Round World Trading Environment: New Leadership and the Structure of the World Economy," paper presented at Asia Foundation-Korea International Institute for Economic Policy conference, February 19, 1993, Seoul, Korea, forthcoming in conference volume.

  123. "Trade Policies in a Maturing Taiwan Economy," paper presented at Council for Economic Planning and Development - Chung-Hua Institution for Economic Research conference, May 28-29, 1993, Taipei, Taiwan, forthcoming in conference volume.

  124. "U.S.-E.C. Trade Relations in a Changing Global Content," in G. Anania, C.A. Carter, and A.F. McCalla, Agricultural Trade Conflicts and GATT, Boulder: Westview Press, 1994.

  125. "The Effect of Trade and Foreign Direct Investment on Employment and Relative Wages," OECD Economic Studies, No. 23, Winter 1994, 7-54.

  126. "Revising the Modern Heckscher-Ohlin Model," paper presented for Ohlin Lectures, October 20-21, 1993, Stockholm, Sweden.

  127. "An Analysis of the ITC Decisions in Antidumping, Countervailing Duty and Safeguard Cases." (with Jeffrey Steagall), Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, Heft 2, 1994, 290-308.

  128. "Safeguard Measures," paper presented at Conference on Uruguay Round Agreements from as Asia- Pacific Perspective," Washington, D.C., August 1-3, 1994

  129. "An Economic Evaluation of the Uruguay Round Agreements," in S. Arndt and C. Milner (eds.), The World Economy: Global Trade Policy 1995, Oxford : Blackwell Publications, 1995.

  130. "Measuring U.S. International Goods and Services Transactions," (with Fukunari Kimura), NBER Working Paper 5516, March 1996.

  131. "Application of Nationality-Adjusted Net Sales and Value Added Framework: The Case of Japan," (with Fukunari Kimura), NBER Working Paper 5670, July 1996.

  132. "Integration the Political Economy Perspectives of Economists and Political Scientists," in R.C. Feenstra, G.M. Grossman, and D.A. Irwin (eds.), The Political Economy of Trade Policy: Papers in Honor of Jagdish Bhagwati, The MIT Press, 1996.

  133. "Alternative Approaches to the Political Economy of Endogenous Trade Liberalization," (with Richard E. Baldwin), European Economic Review 40, 1996, 775-782.

  134. "Imposing Multilateral Discipline on Administered Protection," paper presented at conference on International Aspects of the World Trade Organization's Effectiveness, Center for Economic Policy Research, Stanford University, September 26-28, 1996, forthcoming as NBER conference volume.

  135. "U.S. Trade Policies: The Role of the Executive Branch," paper presented at conference on Representation of Constituents Interests in the Design and Implementation of U.S. Trade Policies, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, November 8-9, 1996, forthcoming in conference volume.

  136. "Shifts in U.S. Relative Wages: The Role of Trade, Technology and Factor Endowments," (with Glen C. Cain), NBER Working Paper 5934, February 1997.