Richard Edward Baldwin

The Graduate Institute, Geneva                                                                                   Telephone:(41)(22) 908-5900

11a, avenue de la Paix, CH-1202 Geneva Switzerland                                Baldwin@GraduateInstitute.ch

TEACHING POSITIONS

Professor of International Economics, The Graduate Institute, Geneva (1991-).

Associate Professor, Graduate School of Business, Columbia University (1989 to 1991).

Assistant Professor, Graduate School of Business, Columbia University (1986 to 1989).

Visiting Professor, MIT Econ. Dept (Sep 2002 – Jan 2003 & Sep 1998 - Feb 1999)

RESEARCH & ADVISORY POSITIONS

Policy Director, Centre of Economic Policy Research, London (2006- )

Founder & Editor-in-Chief, VoxEU.org (Mar 2006 - )

Vice Chair, Advisory Committee, Peterson Institute for International Economics, Washington (Apr 2008 -)

CoManaging Editor, Economic Policy (Jul 2000 – Feb 2006)

Scientific Committee, CEPII, Paris. 2005-2007.

Elected Member, Council of the European Economic Association (1999-2004 & 2006-2011)

Chairman, Foundation Board, World Trade Institute, Bern Switzerland (Sep 2003-Aug 2007)

Member, Foundation Board, World Trade Institute, Bern Switzerland (Oct 2000–Sep 2003)

Member, Joint Consultative Board on WTO Training Institute (Nov 2001-)

Member, Scientific Advisory Board, CREI, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (1998-2003)

Research Associate, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA (1996 -)

Faculty Research Fellow, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA (1987-1996)

Research Fellow, Centre for Economic Policy Research, London (1988 -)

Member, Group of Economic Analysis for Romano Prodi, President of European Commission (2001-2003).

CoDirector, International Trade Programme, Centre of Economic Policy Research, London (1991-2001)

Associate Editor, European Economic Review (1992-1998)

Member, Economic Advisory Group, Directorate-General III (Industry), European Commission (1995); Scientific Committee for EU Competitiveness Report, European Commission (1997-1998)

Term Member, Council of Foreign Relations, New York City (1989-1995)

PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS

Senior Staff Economist, Council of Economic Advisers, Executive Office of the President,

      Washington, DC (Aug 1990 - Apr1991)

Assistant Economist, USAID energy project, Colombo Sri Lanka (Jun 1984 - Sep 1984)

Associate Economic Affairs Officer, United Nations, UNCTAD, Geneva. (Jul 1982 - Aug 1982)

Assistant Economic Affairs Officer, United Nations, UNCTAD, Geneva. (Jul 1981 - Jan 1982)

Research Assistant, Congressional Budget Office, Washington DC. (May 1980 - Aug 1980)

Intern, Joint Economic Committee, US Senate, Washington DC (Jun 1979 - Aug 1979)

Education

Ph.D., Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1986 (Advisor: Paul Krugman)

M.Sc. Economics, London School of Economics, 1981 (Tutor: Alasdair Smith)

B.A. Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1980 (Senior Advisor: Andre Sapir)

Honours

Doctor Honoris Causa, Economics, Turku School of Economics and Business Administration, Finland, 2005


Selected PUBLICATIONS

Books

The Economics of European Integration, textbook with Charles Wyplosz, McGraw-Hill, 2003, 458 pages; third edition 2009 (first 2003, second 2005).

Economic Geography and Public Policy, with Rikard Forslid, Philippe Martin, Gianmarco Ottaviano and Frederic Robert-Nicoud, Princeton University Press, 2003, 481 pages.

Towards an Integrated Europe, CEPR, London, 1994, 234 pages.

Ebooks edited

The great trade collapse: Causes, consequences and prospects. Editor. A VoxEU.org Publication (ebook), 237 pages, December 2009.

The collapse of global trade, murky protectionism, and the crisis: Recommendations for the G20. Editor with Simon Evenett. A VoxEU.org Publication (ebook), 115 pages, March 2009.

What world leaders must do to halt the spread of protectionism. Editor with Simon Evenett. A VoxEU.org Publication (ebook), 71 pages, December 2008.

What G20 leaders must do to stabilise our economy and fix the financial system. Editor with Barry Eichengreen. A VoxEU.org Publication (ebook), 76 pages, November 2008.

Rescuing our jobs and savings: What G7/8 leaders can do to solve the global credit crisis. Editor with Barry Eichengreen. A VoxEU.org Publication (ebook), 44 pages, October 2008.

Policy monographs

Study on the Impact of the Euro on Trade and Foreign Direct Investment, European Economy, Economic Papers 321, May 2008, with Virginia DiNino, Lionel Fontagné, Roberto A. De Santis and Daria Taglioni.

Multilateralising Regionalism: Ideas for a WTO action plan on regionalism, with Phil Thornton, February 2008, CEPR, London.

Come sta Cambiando l’Italia, with Griorgio Barba Navaretti and Tito Boeri, Il Mulino, Bologna, 2007, 222 pages.

In or out, Does it matter: An evidence based analysis of the trade effects of the euro, CEPR, June 2006, 109 pages.

The Shape of a Free Trade Agreement between Switzerland and the United States, with Gary Clyde Hufbauer, Institute for International Economics, Washington DC, February 2006, 224 pages.

The Spoke Trap, CNAEC Research Series 04-02, Korean Institute for International Economic Policy, Seoul, December 2004, 120 pages.

Nice Try: Should the Treaty of Nice be Ratified? with Erik Berglof, Francesco Giavazzi and Mika Widgren, CEPR, London, 2001, 137 pages.

Is Bigger Better?  The Economics of EC Enlargement, with D. Begg, J-P Danthine, V. Grilli, J.Haaland, M.Neumann, V. Norman, A.Venables, A.Winters, CEPR, London 1992, 115 pages. 

Selected articles in refereed journals

“Tax Reform, Delocation, and Heterogeneous Firms,” with Toshihiro Okubo, Scandinavian Journal of Economics 111(4): 741–764, 2009.

“Reforming Economic Institutions of the European Union - EU Institutional Reform: Evidence on Globalization and International Cooperation,”American Economic Review, May 2008, pp 127 – 132.

"Trade and growth with heterogeneous firms," with Frederic Robert-Nicoud, Journal of International Economics, Volume 74, Issue 1, January 2008, Pages 21-34..

"Entry and Asymmetric Lobbying: Why Governments Pick Losers," with Frederic Robert-Nicoud, Journal of the European Economics Association, vol. 5(5), pp1064-1093. 2007.

“Heterogeneous firms, agglomeration and economic geography: Spatial selection and sorting," with Toshihiro Okubo,” Journal of Economic Geography. Vol. 6: pp. 323-346, 2006. (Posted online 10 November 2005)

“Agglomeration, Integration and Tax Harmonization,” with Paul Krugman, European Economic Review, Vol. 48, 1, pp 1-23, 2004.

"The Core-Periphery Model with Forward-Looking Expectations," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Vol. 31, pp 21-49, 2001.

"Trade Liberalisation and Endogenous Growth: A q-Theory Approach," with Rikard Forslid, Journal of International Economics, vol. 50, No. 2, pp 497-517, 2000.

"Agglomeration and Endogenous Capital," European Economic Review, vol. 43, 2, pp253-280, 1999.

"The causes of regionalism," The World Economy, Vol. 20, No, 7, pp 865-888, 1997.

"Multiproduct Multinationals and Reciprocal FDI Dumping," with G. Ottaviano, Journal of International Economics, vol. 54, issue 2, pp. 429-448, 2001.

"Alternate Approaches to the political economy of endogenous trade liberalization," with Robert E. Baldwin, European Economic Review, 40, pp 775-782, 1996.

"Exchange Rate Hysteresis: Large versus Small Policy Alignments," with Richard Lyons, European Economic Review, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp 1- 22, 1994.

"International Migration, Capital Mobility and Transitional Dynamics," with Tony Venables, Economica, Vol.61, No.243, pp 285-300, August 1994.

"Measurable Dynamic Gains from Trade", Journal of Political Economy, vol. 100, 1, pp 162-174, 1992.

"Growth Effects of 1992," Economic Policy, 9, pp 247-282, 1989.

"Persistent Trade Effects of Large Exchange Rate Shocks," with Paul Krugman, Quarterly Journal of Economics, pp 635-654, No. 419, 1989.

"Hysteresis in Import Prices: The Beachhead Effect," American Economic Review, 78, 4, pp 773-785, 1988.

"The Persistence of the US Trade Deficit", with Paul Krugman, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 1:1987, p. 1-43. 

"Politically Realistic Objective Functions and Trade Policy: PROFs and Tariffs", Economic Letters, 24, pp 287-290, 1987.

Other articles in refereed journals 

 “A 3 bloc dance: East Asian regionalism and the North Atlantic trade giants,” with Theresa Carpenter, Singapore Economic Review, Vol. 55, No.1, pp 1-21, 2010.

“Trade liberalisation with heterogeneous firms”, with Rikard Forslid, Review of Development Economics, forthcoming, 2010. See NBER Working Paper No. 12192, May 2006.

“Managing the Noodle Bowl: The fragility of East Asian Regionalism,” Singapore Economic Review, vol. 53, issue 03, pages 449-478, April 2008.

 “Sequencing and Depth of Regional Economic Integration: Lessons for the Americas from Europe,” The World Economy, Vol. 31 Issue 1 Page 5-30, January 2008.

“A test of endogenous trade bloc formation theory on EU data,” Richard Baldwin and Roland Rieder, Journal of International Economic Studies, December 2007.

“Trade effects of the euro: a comparison of estimators,” Richard E. Baldwin and Daria Taglioni, Journal of Economic Integration, Vol. 22, No. 4, December 2007.

"Multilateralising Regionalism: Spaghetti Bowls as Building Blocs on the Path to Global Free Trade" . The World Economy, Vol. 29, No. 11, pp. 1451-1518, November 2006

 “Industry location: the causes,” Swedish Economic Policy Review, 12, No.1, pp 9-28, 2005.

“Multinationals and Endogenous Growth,” with Henrik Braconier and Rikard Forslid, Review of International Economics, 13(5), 945-963, 2005.

 “Eastern enlargement and ECB reform,” with Erik Berglof, Francesco Giavazzi and Mika Widgren, Swedish Economic Policy Review, 8, pp 15-50, 2001.

"Global Income Divergence, Trade and Industrialization: The Geography of Growth Take-Offs," with G. Ottaviano and P. Martin, Journal of Economic Growth, vol. 6, issue 1, pp 5-37, March 2001.

"Regulatory Protectionism, Developing Nations and a Two-Tier World Trading System," Brookings Trade Forum, S. Collins and D. Rodrik (eds), The Brookings Institution, Washington DC, pp 237-293, 2000.

      Re-published in Quantifying the impact of technical barriers to trade: Can it be done? K. Maskus and J.S. Wilson (eds), Michigan University Press, 2001.

"Free Trade Agreements without Delocation," with Frederic Robert-Nicoud, Canadian Journal of Economics, Vol.33, No.3, August 2000.

"The Core-Periphery Model and Endogenous Growth: Stabilising and De-stabilising Integration," with Rikard Forslid, Economica, 67, 3, 307-324, 2000.

"Incremental Trade Protection and Endogenous Growth: A q-Theory Approach,” with Rikard Forslid,  Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, vol. 23, Nos. 5-6, pp 797-823, 1999.

"Trade and growth: Any unfinished business?" European Economic Review, vol. 42, 3-5,pp 695-703, 1998.

"Regional integration and growth in developing nations," Journal of Economic Integration, with Elena Seghezza, vol. 13, no 3, 367-399, 1998.

"The costs and benefits of eastern enlargement: The impact on the EU and central Europe," with J. Francois, and R. Portes, Economic Policy, No. 24, pp 125-176, April 1997.

"Investment Creation and Diversion in Europe," with R. Forslid and J. Haaland, The World Economy,  Vol. 19, No. 6, pp 635-659, 1996.

"What Caused the Resurgence of Regionalism?" Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics, vol 131 (3), pp 453-463, 1995.

"Oserweiterung der Europäischen Union," Internationale Politik, Nr.6, 50 jahr, pp 27-24, June 1995.

"The Eastern Enlargement of the European Union," European Economic Review, Vol. 39, No. 3/4, pp 474-482, 1995.

"The Impact of the 1986 US-Japan Semiconductor Arrangement," Japan and the World Economy, Vol.6, pp 129-152, 1994.

"On the Measurement of Dynamic Effects of Integration," Empirica, 20, pp 129-145, 1993.

"The Mutual Amplification Effect of Unresponsive Trade Prices and Exchange Rate Volatility", with Richard Lyons, Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, 1, 2, pp 1-20, 1993.

"On the Importance of Joining the EC's Single Market: the Perspective EFTA Members," Rivista di Politica Economica, pp 267-284, XII, 1992.

      Republished in International Differences in Growth Rates, M. Baldassarri, L. Paganetto and E. Phelps (eds), St. Martin's Press, 1994.

"Factor Market Barriers are Trade Barriers: Gains from Trade in 1992", European Economic Review, 34, pp 831-850, 1990.

"Hysteresis in Trade," Empirical Economics, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp 19-34, 1990.

"Strategic Trade Policy in the Market for 30-40 Seat Commuter Aircraft," with Harry Flam, Weltwritschaftliches Archiv, Band 125, Heft 3, pp. 484-500, 1989.

"Evaluating Strategic Trade Policy," Aussenwirtschaft, 43, Jahrgang Heft I/II, pp. 207-230, June, 1988.

Conference volumes edited

Multilateralizing Regionalism: Challenges for the Global Trading System, editor with Patrick Low, Cambridge University Press, 2009, 744 pages.

East Asian Economic Regionalism: Feasibilities and Challenges, editor with Ahn, Choong Yong and Inkyo Cheong (Eds.), Springer, 2005, 225 pages.

EMU: Assessing the impact of the euro, editor with Giuseppe Bertola and Paul Seabright, Blackwell, London, 2003, 350 pages.

The Economic Impact of EU Membership on Entrants: New Methods and Issues, editor with Aymo Brunetti, Kluwer, Rotterdam, 2001.

Dynamic Issues in Applied Commercial Policy Analysis, editor with Joseph Francois, Cambridge University Press, June 1999, 300 pages.

Market Integration, Regionalism and the Global Economy, editor with D. Cohen, A. Sapir, and A. Venables, Cambridge University Press, 1999, 352 pages.

Expanding Membership of the European Union, editor with P. Haaparanta and J. Kiander, Cambridge University Press, 1995, 268 pages.

Chapters in books and conference volumes

“The euro’s impact on trade and foreign direct investment” (2010). Chapter 17, in Marco Buti, Servaas Deroose, Vıtor Gaspar, Joao Nogueira Martins(eds), The Euro: The First Decade, Cambridge University Press.

“The great trade collapse and trade imbalances,” (2009). With Daria Taglioni, Chapter 6 in Richard Baldwin (ed), The great trade collapse: Causes, consequences and prospects, VoxEU.org ebook,

“Beyond tariffs: multilateralising non-tariff RTA commitments,” (2009). With Simon Evenett and Patrick Low, Chapter 3 in Richard Baldwin and Patrick Low (eds), Multilateralising Regionalism: Challenges for the Global Trading System, Cambridge University Press, 2009.

“Big-think regionalism: a critical survey” (2009). In Antoni Estevadeordal, Kati Suominen, Robert Teh (eds), Regional Rules in the Global Trading System, Cambridge University Press; 1 edition (June 30, 2009). Also see NBER WP 14056.

“The East Asian Noodle Bowl Syndrome,” (2008). Chapter 2 in Daisuke Hiratsuka and Fukunari Kimura (eds), East Asia's Economic Integration: Progress and Benefit, Palgrave Macmillan.

“The spoke trap: Hub-and-spoke bilateralism in East Asia,” (2008). Chapter 3 in Barry Eichengreen, Yung Chul Park, and Charles Wyplosz (eds), China, Asia, and the New World Economy, Oxford University Press.

“Globalisation: the great unbundling(s),” Chapter 1, in Globalisation challenges for Europe, Secretariat of the Economic Council, Finnish Prime Minister’s Office, Helsinki, 2006. http://hei.unige.ch/baldwin/PapersBooks/Unbundling_Baldwin_06-09-20.pdf or http://www.vnk.fi/hankkeet/talousneuvosto/tyo-kokoukset/globalisaatioselvitys-9-2006/en.jsp.

"Coordination of Industrial Policy in the European Union" with Philippe Martin. In EIB Papers, Vol. 11/ No.1 2006. European Investment Bank, 2006.

“The Impact of Turkey’s Membership on EU Voting”, with Mika Widgren, Chpater 13 in Turkey: Economic Reform & Accession to the European Union, B. Hoekman and  S. Togan (eds), World Bank, Washington DC. 2005.

“Stepping stones or building blocs? Regional and multilateral integration,” in Regional Economic Integration in a Global Framework, J. McKay, M.O. Armengol and G. Pineau (eds), European Central Bank, Frankfurt, 2005.

“Asian Regionalism: Promises and Pitfalls,” in East Asian Economic Regionalism: Feasibilities and Challenges, Ahn, Choong Yong; Baldwin, Richard E.; Cheong, Inkyo (Eds.), Springer, April 2005.

“Managing EU Enlargement,” in Managing European Union Enlargement, H. Berger and T. Moutos (eds), MIT Press, 2004.

“Winners and Losers Under Various Dual Majority Rules for the EU Council of Ministers,” with Mika Widgrén, in Reasoned Choices - Essays in Honor of Academy Professor Hannu Nurmi on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday, M. Wiberg (ed.), The Finnish Political Science Association, 2004. Earlier version published as CEPR Discussion Papers 4450, 2004.

“Agglomeration and regional growth,” with Philippe Martin, Chapter 60, pp 2671-2709, in Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, Volume 4, Cities and Geography V. Henderson and J-F. Thisse (eds), North Holland, 2004.

 “The core-periphery model: Key features and effects”, with R. Forslid, P. Martin and F. Robert-Nicoud, in The Monopolistic Competition Revolution in Retrospect, S. Brakman and B. Heijdra (eds), Cambridge University Press, January 2004.

 “EU Integration and Outsiders: A simulation study of industrial location,” (2001), with Rikard Forslid, Jan I. Haaland, and Karen Helene Midelfart, (2001), in Richard Baldwin and Aymo Brunetti (eds.), Economic impact of EU membership on entrants. New methods and issues, Kluwer, Boston.

"Is it time for a TRAMP? Quantitative perspectives on transatlantic liberalization," with J. Francois, in O.G.Mayer and H-E Scharrer, eds., Transatlantic Relations in a Global Economy, Hamburg: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, ISBN: 3-7890-5935-8, pp. 69-87, 1999.

"Two waves of globalisation: Superficial similarities and fundamental differences," with P. Martin, Chapter 1, pp 3-59, in H.Siebert (ed.), Globalisation and Labour, J.C.B. Mohr for Kiel Institute of World Economics, Tubingen, 1999.

Italian translation reprinted in Crescita regionale ed urbana nel mercato globale: Modelli, politiche, processi di valutazione, edited by Fabio Mazzola and Mario Maggioni, FrancoAngeli, Milan, 2001.

"Concepts and speed of an eastern enlargement," in Quo Vadis Europe? Chapter 4, in H.Siebert (ed.), J.C.B. Mohr for Kiel Institute of World Economics, Tubingen, 1997.

"A review of theoretical developments on regional integration," in Regional integration and trade liberalization in Subsaharan Africa, G.Ngola, P.Collier, D.Greenaway (eds), MacMillan Press, London, 1997.

"Paths towards an integrated Europe: problems and prospective," Chapter 4 in Transforming economies and European integration, R. Dobrinsky and M. Landesmann (eds.), Edward Elgar, 1995. 

"Regional Economic Integration," with A.Venables in Handbook of International Economics: Volume III, G. Grossman and K. Rogoff (eds.), North-Holland, 1995.

"Introduction," with P.Haaparanta and J.Kiander in Expanding European Regionalism: The EU's New Members, Baldwin, R,  P.Haaparanta and J.Kiander (eds.), Cambridge University Press, 1995.

"A Domino Theory of Regionalism", in Expanding European Regionalism: The EU's New Members, Baldwin, R,  P.Haaparanta and J.Kiander (eds.), Cambridge University Press, 1995. Baldwin, R. (1993a),

First circulated as: ‘A Domino Theory of Regionalism’,1993,  NBER WP 4465.

Reprinted as Chapter 23 (pp 479-502) in J. Bhagwati, P. Krishna and A. Panagariya (1999), Trading blocs: Alternative approaches to analyzing preferential trade agreements, Cambridge: MIT Press.

Reprinted in “The WTO and Reciprocal Preferential Trading Agreements” by Edward Elgar, Caroline Freund (ed).

"The Problem with Competitiveness," in 35 Years of Free Trade in Europe: Messages for the Future, Emil Ems (ed), European Free Trade Association, Geneva, 1995.

"Does Sustainability Require Growth?" in Sustainable Economic Development: Domestic and International Policy, Ian Goldin and Alan Winters (eds.), Cambridge University Press, 1995.

"Likely effects of free trade in Europe on commodity and country composition of trade," (1992) Chapter 1 in Patterns of production and trade in the new Europe, EFTA Secretariat, Geneva.

"High Technology Exports and Strategic Trade Policy in Developing Countries: The Case of Brazilian Aircraft," in Trade Policy, Industrialization and Development: New Perspectives, Gerald Helleiner (ed), WIDER 1992.

"On the Microeconomics of the European Monetary Union," European Economy, Special Issue No. 1, “One market one  money”, 1991, European Commission, Brussels.

"External Economies and European Integration: The Potential for Self-fulfilling Expectations", with Richard Lyons, European Economy, Special Issue No. 1, “One market one money”, 1991, European Commission, Brussels.

"Optimal Tariff Retaliation Rules", in The Political Economy of International Trade, Ronald Jones and Anne Krueger (eds), Basil-Blackwell, 1990.

"Some Empirical Evidence on Hysteresis in Aggregate US Import Prices," Chap. 9, in The Economics of the Dollar Cycle, Stephan Gerlach and Peter Petri (eds), MIT Press, 1990.

"Exporting the Capital Markets", Chap. 5, in The Convergence of International and Domestic Markets, David Audretsch (ed), North-Holland Press, 1989.

"Industrial Policy and International Competition in Wide-Bodied Jet Aircraft," with Paul Krugman in Trade Policy Issues and Empirical Analysis, Robert Baldwin (ed), University of Chicago Press, 1988.

"Market Access Restrictions and International Competition: A Simulation Study of 16K Random Access Memories," with Paul Krugman in Empirical Methods for International Trade, Robert  Feenstra (ed), MIT Press, 1988. 

      Republished in Rethinking International Trade, (Paul Krugman Collected Papers), Chap. 13, P.Krugman (ed),  MIT Press, 1990.

      Republished in Imperfect Competition and International Trade (Book of Readings), Chap. 10, G. Grossman (ed),  MIT Press, 1992.

      Republished in Structural Change, Industrial Location and Competitiveness, B. Yeung and J. Oxley (eds) Edward Elgar, London, 1997.

Policy essays published in un- refereed series (Occasional Papers, etc.)

Baldwin, Richard (2006). “Broken Levees: Europe’s Answer to the Global Changes in the Division of Labour”, CESifo Forum, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp 29-35.

Baldwin, Richard and Mika Widgrén (2004): Council Voting in the Constitutional Treaty: Devil in the Details, CEPS Policy Brief 53.

Baldwin, Richard and Mika Widgrén (2004): The Draft Constitutional Treaty's Voting Rule Dilemma, CEPS Policy Brief 44.

Baldwin, R. & Widgrén, M. (2003): Decision-Making and the Constitutional Treaty: Will the IGC Discard Giscard, CEPS Policy Brief No. 37.

“Preparing the ECB for Enlargement,” with Erik Berglof, Francesco Giavazzi and Mika Widgren, CEPR Policy Paper No. 6, October 2001.

"Policy Making in a Globalising World," the 1998 Ola Virin Lecture, Federation of Swedish Industry, Stockholm, 1999.

"East Europe and West European Trade," SNF Report 5/97, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, April 1997. 

"Enlargement of the European Union: The Economic Consequences for the Scandinavian Countries," CEPR Occasional Paper No. 16, 1994.

"The Potential for Trade Between the Countries of EFTA and Central and Eastern Europe," EFTA Occasional Paper No.44, 1993.

"An Eastern Enlargement of EFTA: Why the East Europeans Should Join and the EFTAns Should Want Them," CEPR Occasional Paper No. 10, 1992.

"The Economic Logic of EFTA Countries Joining the EEA and the EC," EFTA Occasional Paper, No. 41, November 1992.

“Preferential trade in the North Atlantic,” with Joseph Francois, CEPR DP 1611.

Discussions and comments published in journals

“Forward”, in “Economic Integration and Spatial Location of Firms and Industries”, Miroslav N. Jovanović, editor, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham:, 2007.

"Comment on Gros and Gonciarz," (1997) European Journal of Political Economy, vol.13, pp 187-188.

"Progressive economic integration: making the magic work again," in Economics of Transition, European Reconstruction and Development Bank, London, Vol 4(2), pp 512-514, 1996.

Book review of Convergence, Divergence and Changing Trade Patterns by K. Walde, in Journal of Economics, vol. 65, No.2, 1997.

Book review of Termites in the Trading System: How Preferential Agreements Undermine Free Trade. By Jagdish Bhagwati, in Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. XLVII (March 2009), pp. 180 – 182.

Discussions published in conference volumes

Comment on “Globalization in History: A Geographical Perspective,” by Nicholas Crafts and Anthony J. Venables in Globalization in Historical Perspective, Michael D. Bordo, Alan M. Taylor and Jeffrey G. Williamson, (eds), University of Chicago Press, 2003.

"Discussion of 'Comparative Advantage, Intra-industry Trade and Location in the Northern Dimension'," by Mika Widgren, in Economics of the Northern Dimension, K. Alho (ed), ETLA, 2000, Helsinki.

Comment on S.Cohen and P.Chin, "Market Tipping and Managed Competition in Strategic High-Technology Industries," in Horst Siebert (ed.) Towards a New Global Framework for High-Technology Competition, JCB Mohr (Paul Siebeck), Tübingen, Germany, for Kiel Institute of World Economics.

Comment on F. Rivera-Batiz, "The economics of technology progress and endogenous growth in open economies," in G. Koopmann and H. Scharrar (eds) The Economics of High-Technology Competition and Cooperation in Global Markets, Nomos Verl., Baden-Baden, for HWWA, 1996.

Comment on Richard Pomfret, "Strategic Trade and Industrial Policy as an Approach to Locational Competitiveness: What Lessons from Asia?", in H. Siebert (ed.)  Locational Competition in the World Economy, Institute for World Economics, J.C.B. Mohr, Tübingen, Germany, 1995. 

Discussion of "Prospects for Regional Integration in the Middle East," Stanley Fischer, in New Dimensions in Regional Integration, J.de Melo and A. Panagariya (eds), Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Discussion of "International finance and economic development" by Paul Krugman, in Finance and development: issues and experience, A. Giovannini (ed), University of Cambridge Press, 1993. 

Discussion of "Global Production Effects of European Integration", Haaland and Norman, in Trade Flows and Trade Policy after "1992", Alan Winters (ed), Cambridge University Press, 1992.