NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

NBER Publications by Alejandra Cox

Contact and additional information for this authorAll papers and publicationsWorking Papers onlyWorking Papers with publication info

Working Papers and Chapters

June 2003International Migration, Remittances, and Schooling: Evidence from El Salvador
with Manuelita Ureta: w9766
We examine the effect of remittances from abroad on households' schooling decisions using data for El Salvador. Following the massive war-related emigration of the 1980's, remittances became a significant source of household income throughout the 1990's. We use the Cox proportional hazard model to examine the determinants of school attendance. Measuring income from a source that is uncorrelated with parental schooling remittances , we find that remittances have a large, significant effect on school retention. We estimate that while household income net of remittances has a small, though significant, impact on the hazard of leaving school in rural and urban areas, remittances have a much larger impact on the hazard of leaving school. In urban areas, the effect of remittances is, at its...
May 2002Social Security Privatization Reform and Labor Markets: The Case of Chile
with Sebastian Edwards: w8924
We analyze the way in which social security privatization reform affects labor market outcomes. We develop a model of the labor market where we assume that, as is the case in most emerging markets, a formal and an informal sectors coexist side by side. According to our model, a social security reform that reduces the implicit tax on labor in the formal sector, will result in an increase in the wage rate in the informal sector and will have an undetermined effect on aggregate unemployment. Results from simulation exercises suggest that in the case of Chile the reforms resulted in an increase in informal sector wages of approximately 2.0%. These results also suggest that the reforms made a positive, but small, contribution to the reduction of Chile's aggregate of unemployment.
April 2000Economic Reforms and Labor Markets: Policy Issues and Lessons from Chile
with Sebastian Edwards: w7646
This paper deals with the reform to labor market regulation implemented by Chile during the last twenty years. We concentrate on the reform to job security, on the decentralization of the wage bargaining process, and on the reduction in payroll taxes. Our interest is to understand to what extent these reforms helped reduce Chile's rate of unemployment from European' to U.S' levels. We argue that the reduction of payroll taxes (within the context of the social security reform), and the decentralization of bargaining increased labor market flexibility and contributed to the reduction of unemployment. Our analysis suggests that the reform on job security had no significant effect on the aggregate rate of unemployment.
May 1990Labor Market Distortions and Structural Adjustments in Developing Countries
with Sebastian Edwards: w3346
The purpose of this paper is to provide a typology of different labor market configurations and investigate how two major structural adjustment policies, namely a trade liberalization reform and the relaxation of capital controls, affect the level of aggregate employment and the rate of unemployment. We consider a number of models starting from the traditional Australian approach. We then analyze a multiple sectors intertemporal setting and a model with uncertainty and search. We identify situations under which structural adjustment results in unemployment.

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