NBER Retirement Research Center Paper No. NB 13-04
Issued in November 2013
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This research was supported by the U.S. Social Security Administration through grant #5RRC08098400-05-00 to the National Bureau of Economic Research as part of the SSA Retirement Research Consortium. The findings and conclusions expressed are solely those of the authors and do not represent the views of SSA, any agency of the Federal Government, or the NBER. The authors are grateful to Sindy Li and Brittany Pineros for outstanding research assistance; to David Weaver for helpful discussion; and to Steve Goss, Michael Morris, and Alice Wade of the Social Security Administration for providing the cohort life tables used in this paper. The first author is a member of the board of directors of Financial Engines, a NASDAQ-listed company which assists individuals with retirement planning. Financial Engines provided no financial support for this research. The authors are doing related research that is supported by a Sloan Foundation grant to Stanford University. The views and approaches in this paper are solely those of the authors.