27 July 2015
European taxes affect the labor force participation and hours worked of men and women born in Europe to immigrant parents, according to research by Naci H. Mocan
and Luiza Pogorelova
. By focusing on immigrants, the authors try to identify individuals who may not share in the culture of their adopted nation, and thereby to separate tax and culture effects.
24 July 2015
Robert Z. Lawrence
estimates that even though measured capital-labor ratios have risen in some industries, labor-augmenting technical change in the U.S. has been sufficiently rapid that effective capital-labor ratios have actually fallen in the industries that account for the largest portion of the declining labor share in income since 1980. This finding, combined with consensus estimates of the elasticity of substitution, can account for much of the recent fall in labor’s share in U.S. income.
23 July 2015
Differences in human capital account for 20 to 35 percent of the current variation in per-capita GDP among states, according to research by Eric A. Hanushek
, Jens Ruhose
, and Ludger Woessmann
. They find that school attainment and cognitive skills make roughly equal contributions to the gap.
22 July 2015
American hospitals are required to provide emergency medical care to the uninsured. Craig Garthwaite
, Tal Gross
, and Matthew J. Notowidigdo
find that each additional uninsured person costs local hospitals $900 per year in uncompensated care. Increases in the uninsured population also lower hospital profit margins, which suggests that hospitals cannot simply pass along increased costs to privately insured patients
21 July 2015
Can employment programs deter high-risk men from crime and violence? Christopher Blattman
and Jeannie Annan
evaluate a program of agricultural training, capital inputs, and counseling for Liberian ex-fighters who were illegally mining or occupying rubber plantations. They find that men in the program increased their farm employment, shifted work hours away from illicit activities, and displayed reduced interest in mercenary work in a nearby war.